Gas Temperature (OpenSciEd) v3

Gas Temperature (OpenSciEd) v3 preview image

1 collaborator

Default-person Michael Novak (Author)

Tags

(This model has yet to be categorized with any tags)
Visible to everyone | Changeable by the author
Model was written in NetLogo 6.1.0 • Viewed 658 times • Downloaded 6 times • Run 0 times
Download the 'Gas Temperature (OpenSciEd) v3' modelDownload this modelEmbed this model

Do you have questions or comments about this model? Ask them here! (You'll first need to log in.)


WHAT IS IT?

This model supports a drawing style interface for "sketching" up representations of new systems to explore related to gas behavior and gas particles. This model is part of the "Connected Chemistry" curriculum http://ccl.northwestern.edu/curriculum/ConnectedChemistry/ which explores the behavior of gases.

Most of the models in the Connected Chemistry curriculum use the same basic rules for simulating the behavior of gases. Each model highlights different features of how gas behavior is related to gas particle behavior.

In all of the models, gas particles are assumed to move and to collide, both with each other and with objects such as walls.

In this model, particles can be added, color coded, and sped up or slowed down, by drawing with the mouse cursor in the WORLD & VIEW. Also, additional types of removable and replaceable walls can be added to the WORLD.

This model enables students to draw a model of a real world system and then test that model. A wide range of real world systems can be modeled with this simple interface (e.g. diffusion of perfume from an uncapped container, hot gas mixed with a cold gas, mixtures of gases).

HOW IT WORKS

The particles are modeled as hard balls with no internal energy except that which is due to their motion. Collisions between particles are elastic. Collisions with the wall are not.

The exact way two particles collide is as follows:

  1. A particle moves in a straight line without changing its speed, unless it collides with another particle or bounces off the wall.
  2. Two particles "collide" if they find themselves on the same patch. In this model, two turtles are aimed so that they will collide at the origin.
  3. An angle of collision for the particles is chosen, as if they were two solid balls that hit, and this angle describes the direction of the line connecting their centers.
  4. The particles exchange momentum and energy only along this line, conforming to the conservation of momentum and energy for elastic collisions.
  5. Each particle is assigned its new speed, heading and energy.

As the walls of the box are heated, the sides of the walls will change color from a deep red (cool) to a bright red, to pink to a pale pink white (hot). The walls contain a constant heat value throughout the simulation.

The exact way particles gain energy from the walls of the box is as follows:

  1. Particles check their state of energy (kinetic).
  2. They hit or bounce off the wall.
  3. They find wall energy and set their new energy to be the average of their old kinetic energy and the wall energy.
  4. They change their speed and direction after the wall hit.

HOW TO USE IT

Buttons: SETUP - sets up the initial conditions set on the sliders. GO/STOP - runs and stops the model. MOUSE INTERACTION - when this is set to "none - let the particles interact" the particles will move and interact with each other and the surroundings. When set to any other value you can then click in the WORLD & VIEW to paint, erase, color, or add various objects and properties.

Sliders: INITIAL-#-PARTICLES - sets the number of gas particles in the box when the simulation starts. INITIAL-GAS-TEMPERATURE sets the initial temperature of the gas.

Switches: SHOW-WALL-HITS? turn visualization of when particles hits the walls (as flashes) on or off

Choosers: VISUALIZE-SPEED? allows you to visualize particle speeds. For example, selecting "arrows", creates a representation of each particle velocity using a scalar arrow. Selecting "shades" creates representation of each particle speed using a brighter (faster) or darker (slower) shade of the particle's color.

MOUSE-INTERACTION sets the type interaction the user can do with the mouse in the WORLD & VIEW. Possible settings include: "none - let the particles interact" - particles move about "draw basic wall" - adds a gray wall under the mouse cursor "draw red removable wall" - adds a red wall under the mouse cursor which can be alternatively removed and replaced (like a valve) using the REMOVE/REPLACE RED WALL. "draw green removable wall" - adds a green wall under the mouse cursor which can be alternatively removed and replaced (like a valve) using the REMOVE/REPLACE GREEN WALL. "big eraser" - erases all objects (except the yellow box boundary walls) under the mouse cursor. "slow down particles" - increase the current speed of the particles by 10%. "speed up particles" - reduces the current speed of the particles by 10%. "paint particles green" - recolors the particles under the mouse cursor green (other settings include orange and purple) "add green particles" - adds a couple of new particles under the mouse cursor (other settings include orange and purple)

Plots:

  • 1: TEMPERATURE OF GASES VS. TIME: plots the temperature of the different gases in the model, as indicated by their color (orange particles, green particles, and purple particles)

THINGS TO NOTICE

The mouse interaction can be used while the model is running as well as when it is stopped.

THINGS TO TRY

Create a model of how odors move throughout a room. Why do some people smell the odor before others? Does the layout of furniture, large objects, and walls in the room effect the movement of the odor? How about the temperature of the air in the room?

Create a model of diffusion of a perfume from a closed container. How would you represent the different gases (the perfume and the surrounding air)? What shape will the container be? How will you model a removable cap or lid?

Create a model of room filled with cold air and a different room filled with warm air. How will represent these different rooms of air? What could you add to show what happens when they mix?

Create a model of heat transfer that shows what happens to the energy of one very fast moving gas particle when it hits a bunch of very slow moving gas particles. What does this show happening to the energy of the initial gas particles?

RELATED MODELS

See GasLab Models See other Connected Chemistry models.

CREDITS AND REFERENCES

This model is part of the Connected Chemistry curriculum. See http://ccl.northwestern.edu/curriculum/chemistry/.

We would like to thank Sharona Levy and Michael Novak for their substantial contributions to this model.

HOW TO CITE

If you mention this model or the NetLogo software in a publication, we ask that you include the citations below.

For the model itself:

Please cite the NetLogo software as:

To cite the Connected Chemistry curriculum as a whole, please use:

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2006 Uri Wilensky.

CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Commercial licenses are also available. To inquire about commercial licenses, please contact Uri Wilensky at uri@northwestern.edu.

Comments and Questions

Please start the discussion about this model! (You'll first need to log in.)

Click to Run Model

globals [
  tick-advance-amount               ; how much we advance the tick counter this time through
  max-tick-advance-amount           ; the largest tick-advance-amount is allowed to be
  init-avg-speed init-avg-energy    ; initial averages
  avg-speed avg-energy              ; current average
  avg-energy-green
  avg-energy-orange
  avg-energy-purple
  particle-size
  toggle-red-state
  toggle-green-state
  min-particle-energy
  max-particle-energy
  speed-slowest-particle
  temperature-slowest-particle
  speed-fastest-particle
  temperature-fastest-particle
  avg-speed-of-all-particles
  temperature-of-entire-gas
  total-kinetic-energy-of-all-particles


  average-particle-speed
  highlighted-particle-speed
  total-kinetic-energy
  show-wall-hits?
  mouse-interaction
  particles-to-add
  color-shade-slowest
  color-shade-fastest
]

breed [ particles particle ]
breed [ walls wall ]
breed [ flashes flash ]
breed [ erasers eraser ]
breed [ arrowheads arrowhead ]
breed [ arrowrods arrowrod]

erasers-own [ pressure? ]
flashes-own [ birthday ]

particles-own [
  speed mass energy          ; particles info
  last-collision
  color-type
]

walls-own [
  energy
  valve-1?
  valve-2?
  pressure?
  surface-energy
]

to setup
  clear-all
  reset-ticks
  set color-shade-slowest green
  set color-shade-fastest red
  set particle-size 1.0
  set max-tick-advance-amount 0.02
  set mouse-interaction "none"
  set particles-to-add 2
  set show-wall-hits? false
  set-default-shape flashes "square"
  set-default-shape walls "wall"
  set-default-shape erasers "eraser"
  set-default-shape arrowheads "default"
  set-default-shape arrowrods "rod"

  set min-particle-energy 0
  set max-particle-energy 10000  ;(.5 ) * ( max-dist-in-tick-advance-amount  / max-tick-advance-amount ) ^ 2

  create-erasers 1 [
    set hidden? true
    set pressure? true
    set size 3
    set color white
  ]

  make-box
  make-particles

  ask particles [ apply-speed-visualization ]

  set init-avg-speed avg-speed
  set init-avg-energy avg-energy

  update-variables
  do-plotting
end 

to go
  mouse-action
  if mouse-interaction = "none"  [
    ask particles [ bounce ]
    ask particles [ move ]
    ask particles [ check-for-collision ]
    ask particles with [ any? walls-here ] [ rewind-to-bounce ]
    ask particles with [ any? walls-here ] [ remove-from-walls ]
  ]

  tick-advance tick-advance-amount
  calculate-tick-advance-amount

  ask flashes [ apply-flash-visualization ]
  ask particles [ apply-speed-visualization ]

  update-variables
  do-plotting
  display
end 

to update-variables

  ifelse any? particles [
    set speed-slowest-particle min [ speed ] of particles
    set temperature-slowest-particle min [ energy ] of particles - 273
    set speed-fastest-particle  max [ speed ] of particles
    set temperature-fastest-particle max[ energy ] of particles - 273
    set avg-speed-of-all-particles mean [ speed ] of particles
    set temperature-of-entire-gas (mean [ energy ] of particles - 273)
    set total-kinetic-energy-of-all-particles sum [energy] of particles
  ]
  [
    set speed-slowest-particle "N/A"
    set temperature-slowest-particle "N/A"
    set speed-fastest-particle "N/A"
    set temperature-fastest-particle "N/A"
    set avg-speed-of-all-particles "N/A"
    set temperature-of-entire-gas "N/A"
    set total-kinetic-energy-of-all-particles "N/A"
  ]

  if any? particles with [ color-type = 55 ] [
    set avg-energy-green mean [ energy ] of particles with [ color-type = 55 ]
  ]
  if any? particles with [ color-type = 25 ] [
    set avg-energy-orange mean [ energy ] of particles with [ color-type = 25 ]
  ]
  if any? particles with [ color-type = 115 ] [
    set avg-energy-purple mean [ energy ] of particles with [ color-type = 115 ]
  ]
end 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;WALL INTERACTION;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to toggle-red-wall
  ifelse toggle-red-state = "closed" [
    ask walls with [ valve-1? ] [
      set hidden? true
    ]
    set toggle-red-state "open"
  ][
    ask walls with [ valve-1? ] [
      set hidden? false
    ]
    set toggle-red-state "closed"
  ]
end 

to toggle-green-wall
  ifelse toggle-green-state = "closed" [
    ask walls with [ valve-2? ] [
      set hidden? true
    ]
    set toggle-green-state "open"
  ][
    ask walls with [ valve-2?] [
      set hidden? false
    ]
    set toggle-green-state "closed"
  ]
end 

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;GAS MOLECULES MOVEMENT;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to bounce  ; particles procedure
  ; get the coordinates of the patch we'll be on if we go forward 1
  let bounce-patch nobody
  let bounce-patches nobody
  let hit-angle 0
  let this-patch patch-here
  let new-px 0
  let new-py 0
  let visible-wall nobody

  set bounce-patch  min-one-of walls in-cone ((sqrt (3)) / 2) 180 with [ myself != this-patch ] [ distance myself ]

  if bounce-patch != nobody [
    set new-px [ pxcor ] of bounce-patch
    set new-py [ pycor ] of bounce-patch
    set visible-wall walls-on bounce-patch

    if any? visible-wall with [ not hidden? ]  [
      set hit-angle towards bounce-patch
      ifelse (hit-angle <= 135 and hit-angle >= 45) or (hit-angle <= 315 and hit-angle >= 225) [
        set heading (- heading)
      ][
        set heading (180 - heading)
      ]
      if show-wall-hits? [
        ask patch new-px new-py [
          sprout 1 [
            set breed flashes
            set color gray - 2
            set birthday ticks
          ]
        ]
      ]
    ]
  ]
end 

to rewind-to-bounce  ; particles procedure
  ; attempts to deal with particle penetration by rewinding the particle path back to a point
  ; where it is about to hit a wall
  ; the particle path is reversed 49% of the previous tick-advance-amount it made,
  ; then particle collision with the wall is detected again.
  ; and the particle bounces off the wall using the remaining 51% of the tick-advance-amount.
  ; this use of slightly more of the tick-advance-amount for forward motion off the wall, helps
  ; insure the particle doesn't get stuck inside the wall on the bounce.

  let bounce-patch nobody
  let bounce-patches nobody
  let hit-angle 0
  let this-patch nobody
  let new-px 0
  let new-py 0
  let visible-wall nobody

  bk (speed) * tick-advance-amount * .49
  set this-patch  patch-here

  set bounce-patch  min-one-of walls in-cone ((sqrt (3)) / 2) 180 with [ self != this-patch ] [ distance myself ]

  if bounce-patch != nobody [

    set new-px [pxcor] of bounce-patch
    set new-py [pycor] of bounce-patch
    set visible-wall walls-on bounce-patch

    if any? visible-wall with [not hidden?] [
      set hit-angle towards bounce-patch

      ifelse (hit-angle <= 135 and hit-angle >= 45) or (hit-angle <= 315 and hit-angle >= 225) [
        set heading (- heading)
      ][
        set heading (180 - heading)
      ]


    ]
  ]
  fd (speed) * tick-advance-amount * .51
end 

to move  ; particles procedure
  if patch-ahead (speed * tick-advance-amount + 0.5) != patch-here [ set last-collision nobody ]
  fd (speed * tick-advance-amount)
end 

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;GAS MOLECULES COLLISIONS;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;from GasLab

to calculate-tick-advance-amount
  ; tick-advance-amount is calculated in such way that even the fastest
  ; particles will jump at most 1 patch delta in a ticks tick. As
  ; particles jump (speed * tick-advance-amount) at every ticks tick, making
  ; tick delta the inverse of the speed of the fastest particles
  ; (1/max speed) assures that. Having each particles advance at most
  ; one patch-delta is necessary for it not to "jump over" a wall
  ; or another particles.
  ifelse any? particles with [ speed > 0 ] [
    set tick-advance-amount min list (1 / (ceiling max [speed] of particles )) max-tick-advance-amount
  ][
    set tick-advance-amount max-tick-advance-amount
  ]
end 

to check-for-collision  ; particles procedure
  ; Here we impose a rule that collisions only take place when there
  ; are exactly two particles per patch.  We do this because when the
  ; student introduces new particles from the side, we want them to
  ; form a uniform wavefront.
  ;
  ; Why do we want a uniform wavefront?  Because it is actually more
  ; realistic.  (And also because the curriculum uses the uniform
  ; wavefront to help teach the relationship between particles collisions,
  ; wall hits, and pressure.)
  ;
  ; Why is it realistic to assume a uniform wavefront?  Because in reality,
  ; whether a collision takes place would depend on the actual headings
  ; of the particles, not merely on their proximity.  Since the particles
  ; in the wavefront have identical speeds and near-identical headings,
  ; in reality they would not collide.  So even though the two-particles
  ; rule is not itself realistic, it produces a realistic result.  Also,
  ; unless the number of particles is extremely large, it is very rare
  ; for three or  particles to land on the same patch (for example,
  ; with 400 particles it happens less than 1% of the time).  So imposing
  ; this additional rule should have only a negligible effect on the
  ; aggregate behavior of the system.
  ;
  ; Why does this rule produce a uniform wavefront?  The particles all
  ; start out on the same patch, which means that without the only-two
  ; rule, they would all start colliding with each other immediately,
  ; resulting in much random variation of speeds and headings.  With
  ; the only-two rule, they are prevented from colliding with each other
  ; until they have spread out a lot.  (And in fact, if you observe
  ; the wavefront closely, you will see that it is not completely smooth,
  ; because  collisions eventually do start occurring when it thins out while fanning.)

  if count other particles-here  in-radius 1 = 1 [
    ; the following conditions are imposed on collision candidates:
    ;   1. they must have a lower who number than my own, because collision
    ;      code is asymmetrical: it must always happen from the point of view
    ;      of just one particles.
    ;   2. they must not be the same particles that we last collided with on
    ;      this patch, so that we have a chance to leave the patch after we've
    ;      collided with someone.
    let candidate one-of other particles-here with [ who < [ who ] of myself and myself != last-collision ]
    ;; we also only collide if one of us has non-zero speed. It's useless
    ;; (and incorrect, actually) for two particles with zero speed to collide.
    if (candidate != nobody) and (speed > 0 or [ speed ] of candidate > 0) [
      collide-with candidate
      set last-collision candidate
      ask candidate [ set last-collision myself ]
    ]
  ]
end 

; implements a collision with another particles.
;
; THIS IS THE HEART OF THE particles SIMULATION, AND YOU ARE STRONGLY ADVISED
; NOT TO CHANGE IT UNLESS YOU REALLY UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU'RE DOING!
;
; The two particles colliding are self and other-particles, and while the
; collision is performed from the point of view of self, both particles are
; modified to reflect its effects. This is somewhat complicated, so I'll
; give a general outline here:
;   1. Do initial setup, and determine the heading between particles centers
;      (call it theta).
;   2. Convert the representation of the velocity of each particles from
;      speed/heading to a theta-based vector whose first component is the
;      particle's speed along theta, and whose second component is the speed
;      perpendicular to theta.
;   3. Modify the velocity vectors to reflect the effects of the collision.
;      This involves:
;        a. computing the velocity of the center of mass of the whole system
;           along direction theta
;        b. updating the along-theta components of the two velocity vectors.
;   4. Convert from the theta-based vector representation of velocity back to
;      the usual speed/heading representation for each particles.
;   5. Perform final cleanup and update derived quantities.

to collide-with [ other-particles ] ;; particles procedure
  ; PHASE 1: initial setup

  ; for convenience, grab  quantities from other-particles
  let mass2 [ mass ] of other-particles
  let speed2 [ speed ] of other-particles
  let heading2 [ heading ] of other-particles

  ; since particles are modeled as zero-size points, theta isn't meaningfully
  ; defined. we can assign it randomly without affecting the model's outcome.
  let theta (random-float 360)

  ; PHASE 2: convert velocities to theta-based vector representation

  ; now convert my velocity from speed/heading representation to components
  ; along theta and perpendicular to theta
  let v1t (speed * cos (theta - heading))
  let v1l (speed * sin (theta - heading))

  ;; do the same for other-particles
  let v2t (speed2 * cos (theta - heading2))
  let v2l (speed2 * sin (theta - heading2))

  ; PHASE 3: manipulate vectors to implement collision

  ; compute the velocity of the system's center of mass along theta
  let vcm (((mass * v1t) + (mass2 * v2t)) / (mass + mass2) )

  ; now compute the new velocity for each particles along direction theta.
  ; velocity perpendicular to theta is unaffected by a collision along theta,
  ; so the next two lines actually implement the collision itself, in the
  ; sense that the effects of the collision are exactly the following changes
  ; in particles velocity.
  set v1t (2 * vcm - v1t)
  set v2t (2 * vcm - v2t)

  ; PHASE 4: convert back to normal speed/heading

  ; now convert my velocity vector into my new speed and heading
  set speed sqrt ((v1t ^ 2) + (v1l ^ 2))
  set energy (0.5 * mass * speed ^ 2)
  ; if the magnitude of the velocity vector is 0, atan is undefined. but
  ; speed will be 0, so heading is irrelevant anyway. therefore, in that
  ; case we'll just leave it unmodified.
  if v1l != 0 or v1t != 0 [ set heading (theta - (atan v1l v1t)) ]

  ;; and do the same for other-particle
  ask other-particles [
    set speed sqrt ((v2t ^ 2) + (v2l ^ 2))
    set energy (0.5 * mass * (speed ^ 2))
    if v2l != 0 or v2t != 0 [ set heading (theta - (atan v2l v2t)) ]
  ]
end 



;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;  mouse interaction procedures
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to mouse-action
 let snap-xcor 0
 let snap-ycor 0
 let orig-xcor 0
 let orig-ycor 0
 let eraser-window-walls nobody
 let eraser-window-particles nobody

  ifelse mouse-down? [
    set orig-xcor mouse-xcor
    set orig-ycor mouse-ycor
    set snap-xcor round orig-xcor
    set snap-ycor round orig-ycor

    ask patches with [ pxcor = snap-xcor and pycor = snap-ycor ] [
      set eraser-window-walls walls-on neighbors
      set eraser-window-walls eraser-window-walls with [ not pressure? ]
      set eraser-window-particles particles-on neighbors

      if mouse-interaction = "draw basic wall" [
        ask walls-here [ die ]
        sprout 1 [
          set breed walls set color gray
          initialize-this-wall
        ]
      ]

      if mouse-interaction = "draw red removable wall"  [
        set toggle-red-state "open"
        toggle-red-wall
        ask walls-here [ die ]
        sprout 1 [
          set breed walls set color red
          initialize-this-wall set valve-1? true
        ]
      ]

      if mouse-interaction = "draw green removable wall" [
        set toggle-green-state "open"
        toggle-green-wall
        ask walls-here [ die ]
        sprout 1 [
          set breed walls set color 55
          initialize-this-wall set valve-2? true
        ]
      ]

      if mouse-interaction = "big eraser" [
        ask erasers [
          set hidden? false
          set shape "eraser"
          setxy orig-xcor orig-ycor
        ]
        ask eraser-window-walls [ die ]
        ask eraser-window-particles [ die ]
      ]

      if mouse-interaction = "add purple particles" or mouse-interaction = "add green particles"
        or mouse-interaction = "add orange particles" [

        ask erasers [
          set hidden? false
          set shape "spray paint"
          setxy orig-xcor orig-ycor
        ]
        sprout particles-to-add [
          set breed particles
          setup-particles
          jump random-float 2
          if mouse-interaction = "add purple particles" [ set color-type 115 color-particle-and-link ]
          if mouse-interaction = "add orange particles" [ set color-type 25 color-particle-and-link ]
          if mouse-interaction = "add green particles" [ set color-type 55  color-particle-and-link ]
          apply-speed-visualization
        ]
      ]

      if mouse-interaction = "paint particles purple"
        or mouse-interaction = "paint particles orange"
        or mouse-interaction = "paint particles green" [

        ask erasers [
          set hidden? false
          set shape "spray paint"
          setxy orig-xcor orig-ycor
        ]
        ask eraser-window-particles [
          if mouse-interaction = "paint particles purple"  [ set color-type 115 color-particle-and-link ]
          if mouse-interaction = "paint particles orange" [ set color-type 25 color-particle-and-link ]
          if mouse-interaction = "paint particles green" [ set  color-type 55 color-particle-and-link ]
          apply-speed-visualization
        ]
      ]

      if mouse-interaction = "speed up particles"  [

        ask erasers [
          set hidden? false
          set shape "spray paint"
          setxy orig-xcor orig-ycor
        ]
        ask eraser-window-particles [
          set energy (energy * 1.1)
          set energy limited-particle-energy
          set speed speed-from-energy
          apply-speed-visualization
        ]
      ]

      if mouse-interaction = "slow down particles" [
        ask erasers [
          set hidden? false
          set shape "spray paint"
          setxy orig-xcor orig-ycor
        ]
        ask eraser-window-particles [
          set energy (energy / 1.1)
          set energy limited-particle-energy
          set speed speed-from-energy
          apply-speed-visualization
        ]
      ]
    ]
    ask particles with [ any? walls-here ] [ remove-from-walls ] ; deal with any walls drawn on top of particles
  ][
    ask erasers [ set hidden? true ]
  ]
end 

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; particle speed and flash visualization procedures
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to apply-flash-visualization
  set size (size * .95)
  if (ticks - birthday > 0.4)  [ die ]
end 

to apply-speed-visualization
  if visualize-particle-speeds = "none" [ turn-off-all recolornone ]
  if visualize-particle-speeds = "different shades" [ turn-off-all  recolorshade ]
  if visualize-particle-speeds = "trail length" [ scale-trails recolornone]
  if visualize-particle-speeds = "arrow length" [ scale-arrowheads recolornone]
  if visualize-particle-speeds = "trail length and shades" [ scale-trails recolorshade]
  if visualize-particle-speeds = "arrow length and shades" [ scale-arrowheads recolorshade]
end 

to color-particle-and-link
  let this-link my-out-links
 ; let this-arrowhead out-link-neighbors
  let this-color-type color-type
  set color this-color-type
  ask this-link [ set color this-color-type ]
end 

to scale-arrowheads
  let this-xcor xcor
  let this-ycor ycor
  let this-speed speed
  let this-heading heading
  let this-arrowhead out-link-neighbors with [breed = arrowheads]
  let this-link my-out-links
  ask this-link [ set hidden? false set shape "line" ]
  ask this-arrowhead [set hidden? false]
 ; ask this-arrowrod [set hidden? false]
  ask this-arrowhead [
    set xcor this-xcor
    set ycor this-ycor
    set heading this-heading
    fd .5 + this-speed / 4
  ]
end 

to scale-trails
  let this-xcor xcor
  let this-ycor ycor
  let this-speed speed
  let this-heading heading
  let this-arrowhead out-link-neighbors with [breed = arrowheads]
  let this-link my-out-links
  ask this-link [ set hidden? false set shape "trail" ]
  ask this-arrowhead [set hidden? true ]
 ; ask this-arrowrod [set hidden? false]
  ask this-arrowhead [
    set xcor this-xcor
    set ycor this-ycor
    set heading (180 + this-heading)
    fd .5 + this-speed / 8
  ]
end 

to turn-off-all
  let this-xcor xcor
  let this-ycor ycor
  let this-speed speed
  let this-heading heading
  let this-arrowhead out-link-neighbors with [breed = arrowheads]
  let this-link my-out-links
  ask this-link [ set hidden? true ]
  ask this-arrowhead [set hidden? true ]
end 

to-report my-color-type
  let this-color-type color-type


  report this-color-type
end 

to recolorshade
  let this-link my-out-links
  let this-arrowhead out-link-neighbors
 ; let this-color color
  let local-color-type my-color-type
 ; let r-value 0
  let energy-difference (energy)

  let r-value ((4.9) * (1 - 0.999 ^ (energy)))
 ;p show r-value

 ; local-color-type - 2.5 + (7 * (energy / 700))
 ; if energy > 700 [set this-color (local-color-type + 4)]

  let this-color ((red + 4.99) - r-value)

 ; let this-color local-color-type - 2.5 + (7 * (energy / 700))
 ; if energy > 700 [set this-color (local-color-type + 4)]


  set color this-color
  ask this-link [ set color this-color ]
  ask this-arrowhead [ set color this-color ]
end 

to recolornone
  let this-link my-out-links
  let this-arrowhead out-link-neighbors
  let this-color color-type
  set color color-type
  ask this-link [set color this-color]
  ask this-arrowhead [ set color this-color ]
end 

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;  initialization procedures
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to make-box
  ask patches [set pcolor black]
  ask patches with [ (pycor = min-pycor or pycor = max-pycor or pxcor = min-pxcor or pxcor = max-pxcor) ] [

    sprout 1 [
      set breed walls set size 1.05 set color [180 180 180] initialize-this-wall set pressure? true
    ]
  ]
end 

to initialize-this-wall
  set valve-1? false
  set valve-2? false
  set pressure? false
end 

to make-particles
  create-particles initial-#-of-particles [
    setup-particles
    random-position
  ]
end 

to setup-particles  ; particles procedure
  set shape "circle"
  set size particle-size
  set energy initial-gas-temperature + 273
  set color-type red
  set color color-type
  set mass (10)  ; atomic masses of oxygen atoms
  hatch 1 [
    set breed arrowheads
    set hidden? true
    create-link-from myself [ tie set hidden? true]
  ]




  set speed speed-from-energy
  set last-collision nobody
end 


; Place particles at random, but they must not be placed on top of wall atoms.
; This procedure takes into account the fact that wall molecules could have two possible arrangements,
; i.e. high-surface area ot low-surface area.

to random-position ;; particles procedure
  let open-patches nobody
  let open-patch nobody
  set open-patches patches with [not any? turtles-here and pxcor != max-pxcor and pxcor != min-pxcor and pycor != min-pycor and pycor != max-pycor]
  set open-patch one-of open-patches

  ; Reuven added the following "if" so that we can get through setup without a runtime error.
  if open-patch = nobody [
    user-message "No open patches found.  Exiting."
    stop
  ]

  setxy ([ pxcor ] of open-patch) ([ pycor ] of open-patch)
end 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;; wall penetration error handling procedure
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
; if particles actually end up within the wall

to remove-from-walls
  let this-wall walls-here with [ not hidden? ]

  if count this-wall != 0 [
    let available-patches patches with [ not any? walls-here ]
    let closest-patch nobody
    if (any? available-patches) [
      set closest-patch min-one-of available-patches [ distance myself ]
      set heading towards closest-patch
      setxy ([ pxcor ] of closest-patch)  ([ pycor ] of closest-patch)
    ]
  ]
end 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;GRAPHS;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to do-plotting
end 


;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;REPORTERS;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

to-report speed-from-energy
  report sqrt (2 * energy / mass)
end 

to-report energy-from-speed
  report (mass * speed * speed / 2)
end 

to-report limited-particle-energy
  let limited-energy energy
  if limited-energy > max-particle-energy [ set limited-energy max-particle-energy ]
  if limited-energy < min-particle-energy [ set limited-energy min-particle-energy ]
  report limited-energy
end 


; Copyright 2006 Uri Wilensky.
; See Info tab for full copyright and license.

There are 3 versions of this model.

Uploaded by When Description Download
Michael Novak 5 months ago wrong model Download this version
Michael Novak 5 months ago readable sliders Download this version
Michael Novak 6 months ago Initial upload Download this version

Attached files

File Type Description Last updated
Gas Temperature (OpenSciEd) v3.png preview Preview for 'Gas Temperature (OpenSciEd) v3' 6 months ago, by Michael Novak Download

This model does not have any ancestors.

This model does not have any descendants.