# MBER NetLogo Limited Resources

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## WHAT IS IT?

This is a simple model of population genetics. There are two populations, the REDS and the BLUES. Each has settable birth rates. The reds and blues move around and reproduce according to their birth rates. When the carrying capacity of the terrain is exceeded, some agents die (each agent has the same chance of being selected for death) to maintain a relatively constant population. The model allows you to explore how differential birth rates affect the ratio of reds to blues.

## HOW TO USE IT

Each pass through the GO function represents a generation in the time scale of this model.

The CARRYING-CAPACITY slider sets the carrying capacity of the terrain. The model is initialized to have a total population of CARRYING-CAPACITY with half the population reds and half blues.

The RED-FERTILITY and BLUE-FERTILITY sliders sets the average number of children the reds and blues have in a generation. For example, a fertility of 3.4 means that each parent will have three children minimum, with a 40% chance of having a fourth child.

The # BLUES and # REDS monitors display the number of reds and blues respectively.

The GO button runs the model. A running plot is also displayed of the number of reds, blues and total population (in green).

The RUN-EXPERIMENT button lets you experiment with many trials at the same settings. This button outputs the number of ticks it takes for either the reds or the blues to die out given a particular set of values for the sliders. After each extinction occurs, the world is cleared and another run begins with the same settings. This way you can see the variance of the number of generations until extinction.

## THINGS TO NOTICE

How does differential birth rates affect the population dynamics?

Does the population with a higher birth rate always start off growing faster?

Does the population with a lower birth rate always end up extinct?

## THINGS TO TRY

Try running an experiment with the same settings many times. Does one population always go extinct? How does the number of generations until extinction vary?

## EXTENDING THE MODEL

In this model, once the carrying capacity has been exceeded, every member of the population has an equal chance of dying. Try extending the model so that reds and blues have different saturation rates. How does the saturation rate compare with the birthrate in determining the population dynamics?

In this model, the original population is set to the carrying capacity (both set to CARRYING-CAPACITY). Would population dynamics be different if these were allowed to vary independently?

In this model, reds are red and blues blue and progeny of reds are always red, progeny of blues are always blue. What if you allowed reds to sometimes have blue progeny and vice versa? How would the model dynamics be different?

## HOW TO CITE

If you mention this model in an academic publication, we ask that you include these citations for the model itself and for the NetLogo software:

- Wilensky, U. (1997). NetLogo Simple Birth Rates model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/SimpleBirthRates. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
- Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

In other publications, please use:

- Copyright 1997 Uri Wilensky. All rights reserved. See http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/SimpleBirthRates for terms of use.

## COPYRIGHT NOTICE

Copyright 1997 Uri Wilensky. All rights reserved.

Permission to use, modify or redistribute this model is hereby granted, provided that both of the following requirements are followed: a) this copyright notice is included. b) this model will not be redistributed for profit without permission from Uri Wilensky. Contact Uri Wilensky for appropriate licenses for redistribution for profit.

This model was created as part of the project: CONNECTED MATHEMATICS: MAKING SENSE OF COMPLEX PHENOMENA THROUGH BUILDING OBJECT-BASED PARALLEL MODELS (OBPML). The project gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (Applications of Advanced Technologies Program) -- grant numbers RED #9552950 and REC #9632612.

This model was converted to NetLogo as part of the projects: PARTICIPATORY SIMULATIONS: NETWORK-BASED DESIGN FOR SYSTEMS LEARNING IN CLASSROOMS and/or INTEGRATED SIMULATION AND MODELING ENVIRONMENT. The project gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (REPP & ROLE programs) -- grant numbers REC #9814682 and REC-0126227. Converted from StarLogoT to NetLogo, 2001.

## Comments and Questions

;;modifed version of Simple Birth Rates by Julia 07/20/14 globals [dead] to setup ; clears all prior information and makes some finches cp ct clear-output clear-all-plots crt 2 ; this is how many finches it will create initially [ setxy random-xcor random-ycor ; randomize turtle locations set color black set size 5 set shape "bird side" ; easier to see ] ask patches [set pcolor green] reset-ticks set dead 0 end to go ask turtles [wander reproduce grim-reaper] tick end to wander ;; turtle procedure rt random-float 40 lt random-float 40 fd 1 end to reproduce ; probability to reproduce if random-float 100 < birth-rate [ hatch 1 [ wander ] ] end ;; kill turtles in excess of carrying capacity ;; note that reds and blues have equal probability of dying to grim-reaper let num-turtles count turtles if num-turtles <= population-maximum [ stop ] if switch [let chance-to-die (num-turtles - population-maximum) / num-turtles if random-float 1.0 < chance-to-die [ set color red fd 1 set dead (dead + 1) die ] ] end ; Copyright 1997 Uri Wilensky. All rights reserved. ; The full copyright notice is in the Info tab.

There is only one version of this model, created almost 5 years ago by Aliza Zivic.

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