03 MppLab V1.09

03 MppLab V1.09 preview image

1 collaborator

121210_portrait_of_garvin Garvin Boyle (Author)

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atwood's machine 

Tagged by Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago

biophysical economics 

Tagged by Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago

ecological economics 

Tagged by Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago

maximum power principle 

Tagged by Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago

sustainability 

Tagged by Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago

sustainable economics 

Tagged by Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago

Model group Sustainability | Visible to everyone | Changeable by group members (Sustainability)
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;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; SECTION A – AUTHOR IDENTIFICATION AND CODE ABSTRACT
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;;
;; File Name: MppLab_V1.09.nlogo
;; By Orrery Software
;; Dated: 2017-03-25
;; Author contact:
;;   Garvin H Boyle
;;   orrery@rogers.com
;;   http://orrery-software.webs.com

;; As the author, I welcome questions, discussion of issues and suggestions
;;   for improvements.

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; This MppLab app is a laboratory in which students can study aspects 
;;   of the Maximum Power Principle (MPP) of H.T. Odum.

;; Please note that there was one aspect of this model that has caused some
;;   confusion when I explain it.  So, I have modified the terminology within
;;   the code and in the user interface, but the logic of the code has not 
;;   changed.  The confusion arose from my "borrowing" of the mechanics of 
;;   Atwood's Machine (the AM) to model the chemistry of digestion.  In 
;;   particular, I have invented a genetic factor that I am calling the
;;   "genetic energy transfer factor", or getf for short.  The logic
;;   for doing so is as follows:
;; - Odum argued that the dynamics of the AM are a great example of the
;;   trade-off between power and efficiency that is ubiquitous and a
;;   fundamental characteristic of ALL energy transfers.  He also argued that
;;   all energy transfers take time, and that the MPP is the common time
;;   regulator.
;; - I do not have empirical data for chemical digestion of one species by
;;   another.  In fact, to simulate a real-world trophic web, I would need data
;;   for all species trying to digest all other species.  And, for each such
;;   potential transfer, I would need both efficiency and speed of all such 
;;   energy transfers.
;; - On the other hand, we have an exquisitely precise analytic description of
;;   the energy transfer that happens in the AM, providing both efficiency and
;;   power (rate of energy transfer), and implicit therein is the time required
;;   to complete the transfer (called the drop time).
;; - So, I reasoned, I could emulate the efficiency and rate of energy transfer
;;   of digestion using the analytic description of the AM.  Since the mass of
;;   the two components of the AM are the critical factors, I have inserted a
;;   proxy for mass into all organisms, and I call that the genetic-energy-
;;   transfer-factor (or getf).  Whenever two organisms meet, I use their
;;   respective getf values to determine (a) who is predator and who is prey;
;;   (b) how long it takes for predator to digest prey; and (c) how much of the
;;   consumed energy of the prey is turned to waste heat, and how much is 
;;   retained as "still-useful-energy" in the predator.
;; - This does not give me a simulation of any particular act of digestion, but
;;   it does give me a template for emulation of all possible acts of digestion
;;   (all possible efficiencies and powers) and thus allows me to investigate 
;;   the nature of real-world trophic webs.

;; So, to be clear, the concept of mass that we all know and understand as 
;;   playing a significant role in biology IS NOT EXPLICITLY USED ANYWHERE IN 
;;   THIS MODEL.
;; BUT, the ability of one organism to digest another organism is determined by
;;   the interaction of the relative values of the getf factors.
;; AND, I use the mathematics of energy transfers that derives from the AM and
;;   the masses therein to compute the effects of getf values when they
;;   interact.

;; Mass in the AM is a proxy for getf in an organism, playing similar roles in 
;;   determining the dynamics of energetic interactions.

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; SECTION B – INITIAL DECLARATIONS OF GLOBALS AND BREEDS
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;;
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; This program was developed on NetLogo Version 5.0.5
;;

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; code-determined global variables
globals
[
  ;; The version should be coded in this global variable to be included in
  ;;   output files.
  gs-Version
  
  ;; Note: Some global variables are declared inside of switches, sliders and 
  ;;   choosers when the interface is constructed and are not declared here.
  ;;   For the sake of clarity and completeness, they are noted here.
  
  ;; There are several uses of global variables:
  ;;  - Toggles (switches), and choosers which enable or disable features;
  ;;  - Numbers (in variables or sliders) which act as parameters;
  ;;  - Numbers (in variables) which collect data.
  ;;
  ;; Those marked as 'native Boolean' have values of true or false.
  ;; Those marked as 'numeric Boolean' have values of 1 or 0.
   
  ;;---------------------
  ;; MODELING ENVIRONMENT
  ;;---------------------
  
  ;; Assumed “Model Settings” on startup
  ;; horizontal wrap: on
  ;; vertical wrap: on
  ;; location of origin: centre
  ;; patch size: 9.63 pixels
  ;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
  ;; Implicit global variables due to model settings – patch locations
  ;; min-pxcor  -15
  ;; max-pxcor   15
  ;; min-pycor  -15
  ;; max-pycor   15
  
  ;;----------------------------
  ;; SCENARIO SELECTION CONTROLS
  ;;----------------------------
  
  ;; gs-scenario         ;; Chooser, string converts to a scenario number
  g-scenario-number      ;; scenario no., 0 or 1; interpretation of gs-scenario
  ;; The possible scenarios.
  ge-scenario-herbivores ;; scenario 0
  ge-scenario-omnivores  ;; scenario 1

  ;; To halt a scenario at a pre-determined tick.
  ;; g-halt-at-tick       ;; Has it's own input box

  ;; Initialize the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG).
  ;; g-use-this-seed      ;; Slider, ( 1 <= g-use-this-seed <= 100 )

  ;;-----------------------------------------------
  ;; BIOPHYSICAL SUB-SYSTEM CONTROLS AND PARAMETERS
  ;;-----------------------------------------------

  ;; Atwood's Machine parameters (Sliders)
  ;; g-drop-distance  ;; The distance a mass falls (D) in the AM.
  ;; g-acceleration   ;; Acceleration due to gravity (g).
  
  ;; Biophyscial life function parameters, autotrophs.
  ;; g-a-target-population  ;; The target carrying capacity [50, 10, 10000].
  g-a-initial-getf    ;; Initial getf (mass) of autotrophs on startup.

  ;; Biophyscial life function parameters, heterotrophs.
  gb-h-heterotrophs-on  ;; Creates heterotrophs
  g-h-initial-getf      ;; Initial getf (mass) of heterotrophs on startup.
  g-h-DAT   ;; Death Age Threshold
  ;; g-h-RET-factor     ;; Repreductive Energy Threshold Slider [0.1,0.01,1.0]
  ;; g-h-EPM-factor     ;; Energy Per Move (expended) Slider [0,.0001,.1]
  ;; g-h-ub-upper-bound ;; Upper bound on the ub gene Slider [2,.1,20]
  ;; g-h-lb-lower-bound ;; lower bound on the lb gene Slider [1,.1,4]
  ;; g-h-initial-population ;; The number of heterotrophs deployed by button.
  ;; g-h-mutation-factor    ;; delta-getf (delta-mass) Slider [0,.01,1]
  ;; g-h-satiation-factor   ;; feeding trigger Slider [0,.01,1]
  ;; gb-h-ub-gene-active ;; Switch activates ub gene for prey selection.
  ;; gb-h-lb-gene-active ;; Switch activates lb gene for prey selection.
  
    
  ;; List to hold counts of cause of death.
  gl-causes-of-death-a-per-tick
  gl-causes-of-death-a-cumulative
  gl-causes-of-death-h-per-tick
  gl-causes-of-death-h-cumulative

  ;; Global enumeration (ge-) codes codes for cause of death.
  ge-cod-none
  ge-cod-hunger
  ge-cod-fission
  ge-cod-old-age
  ge-cod-as-prey
  ge-cod-toggled

  ;; List to hold counts of cause of birth.
  gl-causes-of-birth-a-per-tick
  gl-causes-of-birth-a-cumulative
  gl-causes-of-birth-h-per-tick
  gl-causes-of-birth-h-cumulative

  ;; Global enumeration (ge-) codes for cause of birth.
  ge-cob-generated
  ge-cob-fission

  ;; Control on type of participation in OAM (b-is-in-oam).
  ;; Global enumeration (ge-) codes for status in oam.
  ge-not-in-oam                    ;; Should be assigned a zero.
  ge-rh-hoam                       ;; Should be assigned a one.
  ge-lh-hoam                       ;; Should be assigned a two.
  
  ;;-------------------------------------
  ;; END OF MODEL PARAMETERS AND CONTROLS
  ;;-------------------------------------
  
  ;;-------------------------------------
  ;; DATA COLLECTION AND DISPLAY CONTROLS
  ;;-------------------------------------
  
  ;; The following global variables are not model controls or paramaters, 
  ;;   but, rather, are variables used to collect data about the model 
  ;;   for display in the user interface, in some fashion (monitors or plots),
  ;;   or used to manage all of the debug routines and output.
  
  ;; SYSTEM-WIDE AGGREGATES
  ;; System of energy sinks.
  gl-sinks-per-tick
  gl-sinks-cumulative

  ;; Global enumeration (ge-) codes.
  ge-sinktype-source         ;; Xrg in, from Sun, creation/injection of agents. 
  ge-sinktype-unused-source  ;; Unused after feeding.
  ge-sinktype-a-move         ;; Autotrophs EPM
  ge-sinktype-h-move         ;; Heterotrophs EPM
  ge-sinktype-a-fiss-exergy  ;; 'Usable energy' transferred auto to D1/D2.
  ge-sinktype-h-fiss-exergy  ;; 'Usable energy' transferred hetero to D1/D2.
  ge-sinktype-a-food-exergy  ;; 'Usable energy' transferred auto to pred.
  ge-sinktype-h-food-exergy  ;; 'Usable energy' transferred hetero to pred.
  ge-sinktype-a-food-excess  ;; 'Excess food' exhausted by auto.
  ge-sinktype-h-food-excess  ;; 'Excess food' exhausted by hetero.
  ge-sinktype-a-kinetic      ;; 'Kinetic energy' exhausted by auto.
  ge-sinktype-h-kinetic      ;; 'Kinetic energy' exhausted by hetero.
  ge-sinktype-a-die-fiss     ;; Unused exergy of auto on fission.
  ge-sinktype-h-die-fiss     ;; Unused exergy of hetero on fission.
  ge-sinktype-a-die-hunger   ;; Remaining energy of auto on death.
  ge-sinktype-h-die-hunger   ;; Remaining energy of hetero on death.
  ge-sinktype-a-die-oldage   ;; Remaining energy of auto on death.
  ge-sinktype-h-die-oldage   ;; Remaining energy of hetero on death.
  ge-sinktype-a-die-asprey   ;; Remaining energy of auto on death.
  ge-sinktype-h-die-asprey   ;; Remaining energy of hetero on death.

  ;;---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
  ;; The following agent sets, counts and averages are for data collection 
  ;;   and display in monitors and plots.
  
  ;; Agent sets
  ga-oams   ;; Set of all turtles as lh-hoams
  
  ;; Counts
  g-no-of-autotrophs        ;; count of all autotrophs
  g-no-of-heterotrophs      ;; count of all heterotrophs
  g-no-of-oams              ;; count of all Open Atwood Machines
  g-no-of-a-as-rh-hoams     ;; count of all autotrophs in rh-hoams
  g-no-of-h-as-rh-hoams     ;; count of all heterotrophs in rh-hoams
  
  ;; Averages
  g-a-ave-getf              ;; getf (mass) of autotrophs
  g-a-ave-max-potential     ;; max pot of autotrophs
  g-a-ave-cur-potential     ;; current pot of autotrophs

  g-h-ave-age               ;; age of heterotrophs
  g-h-ave-getf              ;; getf (mass) of heterotrophs
  g-h-ave-lb-gene           ;; gene controlling size of prey
  g-h-ave-ub-gene           ;; gene controlling size of prey
  g-h-ave-RET               ;; RET of heterotrophs
  g-h-ave-EPM               ;; EPM of heterotrophs
  g-h-ave-max-potential     ;; max pot of heterotrophs
  g-h-ave-cur-potential     ;; current pot of heterotrophs
  g-h-ave-BITE-total        ;; average bite of heterotrophs
  g-h-ave-BITE-xrg          ;; portion to exergy
  g-h-ave-BITE-kinetic      ;; portion to kinetic energy

  g-h-ave-Eu                ;; Odum's efficiency of OAMs
  g-h-ave-max-dt            ;; maximum drop time of OAMs
  g-h-ave-cur-dt            ;; current drop time of OAMs
  g-h-ave-rem-dt            ;; remaining drop time of OAMs
  g-h-ave-dt-ratio          ;; ratio rem/max dt of OAMs

  ;; SWITCHES - These are declared in the switch itself, and so are 
  ;;   commented out here.  They are all native Booleans, having values of
  ;;   true or false.
  gb-stabilize-autotrophs      ;; Enables additional autotrophs to be sprouted.
  ;; gb-plot-data              ;; Enables plotting

  ;; Other - built-in or declared implicitly in plot interface items
  ;; See each plot design dialogue.

  ;;--------------------------
  ;; DATA CAPTURE TO CSV FILES
  ;;--------------------------

  ;; CSV means "Comma Separated Values"
  ;; 
  
  ;;---------------
  ;; DEBUG CONTROLS
  ;;---------------
  
  gb-debug-on                 ;; Numeric Boolean, opens debug log file, 0 or 1.
  gs-debug-status             ;; for monitor, '1 (On)' or '0 (Off)', 
  ;; gs-debug-step-chooser    ;; Chooser, used with gb-debug-flow-on
  gb-debug-flow-on            ;; Numeric Boolean, in association with chooser, 
  gs-log-file-name            ;; name of the debug log file
                              ;;   opens flow to log file
]


;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Attributes of patches
patches-own 
[
  ;; BUILT-IN ATTRIBUTES 
  ;; pxcor        ;; min-pxcor <= pxcor < max-pxcor
  ;; pycor        ;; min-pxcor <= pxcor < max-pxcor 
  ;; pcolor       ;; color of this patch ( 0 <= color < 140 ) 
  ;; plabel       ;; label of this patch
  ;; plabel-color ;; color of this patch's label ( 0 <= label-color < 140 ) 
   
  ;; MppLab-DETERMINED ATTRIBUTES
  ;; Nil.
]

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Attributes of links
;; nil
;; I don't understand links and did not use any.

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Turtles and breeds
breed [ autotrophs    autotroph ]
breed [ heterotrophs  heterotroph ]

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Attributes of autotrophs
autotrophs-own 
[
  ;; BUILT-IN ATTRIBUTES
  ;; who         ;; fixed id number
  ;; breed       ;; to which breed this turtle belongs [autotroph]
  ;; heading     ;; 0 <= heading < 360, 0 = north
  ;; xcor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; ycor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; size        ;; size relative to a patch, default is 1
  ;; shape       ;; a shape chosen from the shape library
  ;; color       ;; color of this turtle ( 0 <= color < 140 )
  ;; pen-mode    ;; "up" or "down"
  ;; pen-size    ;; in pixels
  ;; hidden?     ;; true or false
  ;; label       ;; label of this turtle
  ;; label-color ;; color of this turtle's label ( 0 <= label-color < 140 )
  
  ;; USER-DETERMINED ATTRIBUTES
  ;; Associated with autotroph dynamics.
  mas-who              ;; serial number of parent autotroph.
  default-colour       ;; as it says
  ;; getf is short for genetic-energy-transfer-factor, proxy for mass in the AM.
  getf                 ;; the getf (mass) in this HOAM
  cause-of-death       ;; for statistical purposes
  b-is-ready-to-die    ;; old (in age) or starved (in exergy)

  ;; An autotroph can be unassociated, or in the role of prey in an OAM, 
  ;;   i.e. as an RH-HOAM.

  ;; Unassociated dynamics.
  max-potential     ;; maximum potential energy
  cur-potential     ;; amount of high-grade gravitational potential energy
  
  ;; Associated with RH-HOAM dynamics.
  b-is-in-oam       ;; 0 = no; 1 = as RH-HOAM
  pred-who          ;; the who number of the predator, i.e. the rh-haom
  trophic-level-floated ;; trophic level of this autotroph
]

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Attributes of heterotrophs
heterotrophs-own 
[
  ;; BUILT-IN ATTRIBUTES
  ;; who         ;; fixed id number
  ;; breed       ;; to which breed this turtle belongs [heterotroph]
  ;; heading     ;; 0 <= heading < 360, 0 = north
  ;; xcor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; ycor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; size        ;; size relative to a patch, default is 1
  ;; shape       ;; a shape chosen from the shape library
  ;; color       ;; color of this turtle ( 0 <= color < 140 )
  ;; pen-mode    ;; "up" or "down"
  ;; pen-size    ;; in pixels
  ;; hidden?     ;; true or false
  ;; label       ;; label of this turtle
  ;; label-color ;; color of this turtle's label ( 0 <= label-color < 140 )
  
  ;; USER-DETERMINED ATTRIBUTES
  ;; Associated with heterotroph.
  mas-who              ;; serial number of parent heterotroph.
  heterotroph-sn       ;; serial number of this heterotroph.
  age                  ;; age of this heterotroph
  default-colour       ;; as it says
  ;; getf is short for genetic-energy-transfer-factor, proxy for mass in the AM.
  getf                 ;; the getf (mass) in this heterotroph
  lb-genetic-factor    ;; gene to set lower bound on getf of prey.
  ub-genetic-factor    ;; gene to set upper bound on getf of prey.
  cause-of-death       ;; for statistical purposes
  RET                  ;; Reproductive Energy Threshold for this heterotroph
  EPM                  ;; Energy Per Move for this heterotroph

  b-is-ready-to-move      ;; 0 = no; 1 = ready to move
  b-is-ready-to-reproduce ;; mature (in age) and healthy (in exergy)
  b-is-ready-to-die       ;; old (in age) or starved (in exergy)

  ;; A heterotroph may be in a free-moving unassociated state (predator on the
  ;;   hunt), in an OAM as an RH-HOAM (captured prey), or in an OAM as a
  ;;   LH-HOAM (predatory eating prey).  Variables are layed out here to address
  ;;   four needs:
  ;; - unassociated heterotroph
  ;; - heterotroph in OAM as prey
  ;; - heterotroph in OAM as predator
  ;; - the OAM in which predator and prey are temporarily associated.
  ;;
  ;; Last two are used together.  I.e. the OAM variables are stored in the
  ;;   predator while the OAM exists.
  
  ;; Unassociated dynamics.
  max-potential
  cur-potential ;; amount of high-grade gravitational potential energy

  ;; Associated with OAM dynamics.
  b-is-in-oam           ;; 0 = no; 1 = as RH-HOAM; 2 = as LH-HOAM
  prey-who              ;; the who number of the prey, i.e. the rh-haom
  pred-who              ;; the who number of the predator, i.e. the lh-hoam
  no-of-prey-eaten      ;; the number of prey captured and eaten
  sum-of-t-plus-one     ;; an aggregator for trophic level data
  trophic-level-floated ;; trophic level of this heterotroph
  trophic-level-rounded ;; trophic level of this heterotroph

  Eu-in-oam             ;; Eu is H.T.Odum's efficiency (ML/MH)
  max-drop-time         ;; Drop time for this OAM.
  cur-drop-time         ;; Time since drop started.
  rem-drop-time         ;; Remaining drop time.
  drop-time-ratio       ;; Fraction of drop time remaining.
]

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; SECTION C – INITIALIZATION OR SETUP PROCEDURE( S )
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; The 'autostart' startup routine

to startup
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  ;; The manual describes this routine as follows:
  ;; This procedure, if it exists, will be called when a model is first loaded in 
  ;;   the NetLogo application.  Startup does not run when a model is run headless 
  ;;   from the command line, or by parallel BehaviorSpace.

  ;; On loading the model, the debug feature is always off.
  set gb-debug-on 0
  set gs-debug-status "0 (Off)"
  
  ;; On loading the model, the model, the choosers, switches and sliders are
  ;;   always reset to the values that are known to work.  Only the chooser
  ;;   for the scenario is not reset.  The last saved 
  ;;   selection of scenario is persistant.  This allows the 'Reset Defaults'
  ;;   button to NOT reset the scenario.
  f-reset-default-parameters

  ;; Run the setup routine to initialize other globals.
  setup
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; The setup button(s)

to setup
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  ;; NOTE: The contents of switches, sliders, and choosers seem to be 
  ;;   immune to these 'clear' commands.
  clear-ticks
  clear-turtles
  clear-patches
  clear-drawing
  clear-all-plots
  clear-output
  ;; clear-globals   ;; Suppressed to make gb-debug-on value persistent.
  ;; NOTE: Instead of 'clear-globals', you must ensure all globals are 
  ;;   initialized properly in 'setup'.
  
  ;; import-drawing "01-B OrrSW.jpg"
  
  ;; The version should be coded in this global variable to be included in
  ;;   output files.
  set gs-Version "MppLab_V1.09" 

  ;; Debug features may be off or on depending on history.
  ;;   - Perhaps 'Setup' was called by 'to Startup'.
  ;;   - Perhaps 'setup' was called during a 'BehaviorSpace' run.
  ;;   - Perhaps 'setup' was called by a user-pushed 'setup' button.
  ;; Setup needs to handle some quasi-persistant values correctly regardless of
  ;;   the history.  For gb-debug-on, in particular, I want it to be 
  ;;   persistant so I can have debug output from the 'setup' routine routed
  ;;   to the debug log file, or to the command centre.
  
  ;; 'startup' automatically sets gb-debug-on to 0 when the application is first
  ;;   loaded.  I want to be able to (A) toggle debug on, then, (B) press 
  ;;   'setup' and watch the debug output of the 'setup' command.  The gb-debug-on
  ;;   must be persistant through the above 'clear' commands.  The debug log 
  ;;   file name and status, however, should not be persistent and must be 
  ;;   reset when setup runs, if appropriate.
  ifelse ( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ;; Debug is on due to user setting, so file name and status should be 
    ;;   reset.  I do this by turn the feature off then on.
    ;; First toggle it off, closing any remnant log file, if needed.
    f-toggle-debug
    ;; Then toggle it back on, opening a new time-stamped log file.
    f-toggle-debug
  ]
  ;; else
  [
    ;; Debug is off, possibly due to startup execution, possibly due to user 
    ;;   choice.
    ;; Ensure associated variables have compatible settings.
    set gb-debug-on 0              ;; Redundant but ensures consistency.
    set gs-debug-status "0 (Off)"  ;; Redundant but ensures consistency.
    set gb-debug-flow-on 0         ;; Step-specific flow is off.
    file-close-all                 ;; Close the debug log file.
    set gs-log-file-name "dummyname"
  ]
  
  ;; Now, do the standard check that is done at the start of each debuggable 
  ;;   routine.  This must follow the clear commands, which reset everything 
  ;;   except globals, switches, sliders and choosers.
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ifelse( ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "all" ) or ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "setup" ) )
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 1 LOG-TO-FILE "" LOG-TO-FILE word "Do-setup: Debug on; tick = " 0 ]
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ]
  ]

  ;; g-use-this-seed comes from a slider, and is persistant.
  random-seed g-use-this-seed      ;; Tells the PRNG to use this seed.
  
  ;; Declare values of hidden declarations from sliders.
  LOG-TO-FILE ( "" )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( "  Do-set: ATWOOD MACHINE PARAMETERS (Sliders):" )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word  "  Do-set: g-drop-distance - " g-drop-distance )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word  "  Do-set: g-acceleration - "  g-acceleration )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( "" )

  LOG-TO-FILE ( "  Do-set: AUTOTROPH POPULATION PARAMETERS (Sliders):" )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word  "  Do-set: g-a-target-population - " g-a-target-population )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( "" )

  ;; Biophysical life function parameters, autotrophs.
  set g-a-initial-getf 128 ;; Initial getf (mass) of autotrophs on startup.
  ;; g-a-target-population  ;; The target carrying capacity [50, 10, 10000].

  LOG-TO-FILE ( "  Do-set: INTERNAL AUTOTROPH PARAMETERS:" )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-a-initial-getf - " g-a-initial-getf )

  LOG-TO-FILE ( "" )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( "  Do-set: HETEROTROPH POPULATION PARAMETERS:" )
  
  ;; Biophysical life function parameters, autotrophs.
  set g-h-initial-getf 100 ;; Initial getf (mass) of heterotrophs on startup.
  ;; Biophysical life function parameters, heterotrophs.
  set g-h-DAT   1600       ;; Death Age Threshold
  ;; g-h-mutation-factor   ;; delta-getf (delta-mass); Slider [0,.01,1]
  ;; g-h-satiation-factor  ;; feeding trigger; Slider [0,.01,1]
  ;; g-h-ub-upper-bound    ;; Upper bound on the ub gene; Slider [2,.1,20]
  ;; g-h-lb-lower-bound    ;; lower bound on the lb gene; Slider [1,.1,4]
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-h-initial-population - " g-h-initial-population )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-h-initial-getf - "       g-h-initial-getf )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-h-DAT - "                g-h-DAT )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-h-mutation-factor - "    g-h-mutation-factor )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-h-satiation-factor - "   g-h-satiation-factor )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-h-ub-upper-bound - "     g-h-ub-upper-bound )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: g-h-lb-lower-bound - "     g-h-lb-lower-bound )

  ;; List to hold counts of cause of death.
  set gl-causes-of-death-a-per-tick   ( n-values 6 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-death-a-cumulative ( n-values 6 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-death-h-per-tick   ( n-values 6 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-death-h-cumulative ( n-values 6 [0] )
  ;; Enumeration codes for cause of death.
  set ge-cod-none     0
  set ge-cod-hunger   1
  set ge-cod-fission  2
  set ge-cod-old-age  3
  set ge-cod-as-prey  4
  set ge-cod-toggled  5
  
  ;; List to hold counts of cause of birth.
  set gl-causes-of-birth-a-per-tick   ( n-values 2 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-birth-a-cumulative ( n-values 2 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-birth-h-per-tick   ( n-values 2 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-birth-h-cumulative ( n-values 2 [0] )
  ;; Enumeration codes for cause of birth.
  set ge-cob-generated 0
  set ge-cob-fission   1
  
  ;; Control on type of participation in OAM (b-is-in-oam).
  ;; These are enumeration values, having no meaning beyond the name.
  set ge-not-in-oam  0  ;; Should be assigned a zero.
  set ge-rh-hoam     1  ;; Should be assigned a one.
  set ge-lh-hoam     2  ;; Should be assigned a two.
  
  ;; System of energy sinks.
  set gl-sinks-per-tick ( n-values 20 [0] )
  set gl-sinks-cumulative ( n-values 20 [0] )
  ;; Global enumeration (ge-) variables.
  set ge-sinktype-source        0 ;; Xrg in, from Sun, creation/injection of agents. 
  set ge-sinktype-unused-source 1 ;; Unused after feeding.
  set ge-sinktype-a-move        2 ;; Autotrophs EPM
  set ge-sinktype-h-move        3 ;; Heterotrophs EPM
  set ge-sinktype-a-fiss-exergy 4 ;; 'Usable energy' transferred auto to D1/D2.
  set ge-sinktype-h-fiss-exergy 5 ;; 'Usable energy' transferred hetero to D1/D2.
  set ge-sinktype-a-food-exergy 6 ;; 'Usable energy' transferred auto to pred.
  set ge-sinktype-h-food-exergy 7 ;; 'Usable energy' transferred hetero to pred.
  set ge-sinktype-a-food-excess 8 ;; 'Excess food' transferred auto to pred.
  set ge-sinktype-h-food-excess 9 ;; 'Excess food' transferred hetero to pred.
  set ge-sinktype-a-kinetic    10 ;; 'Kinetic energy' exhausted by auto.
  set ge-sinktype-h-kinetic    11 ;; 'Kinetic energy' exhausted by hetero.
  set ge-sinktype-a-die-fiss   12 ;; Unused exergy of auto on fission.
  set ge-sinktype-h-die-fiss   13 ;; Unused exergy of hetero on fission.
  set ge-sinktype-a-die-hunger 14 ;; Remaining energy of auto on death.
  set ge-sinktype-h-die-hunger 15 ;; Remaining energy of hetero on death.
  set ge-sinktype-a-die-oldage 16 ;; Remaining energy of auto on death.
  set ge-sinktype-h-die-oldage 17 ;; Remaining energy of hetero on death.
  set ge-sinktype-a-die-asprey 18 ;; Remaining energy of auto on death.
  set ge-sinktype-h-die-asprey 19 ;; Remaining energy of hetero on death.
  
  ;;---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
  ;; The following agent sets, counts and averages are for data collection 
  ;;   and display in monitors and plots.
  
  ;; Agent sets
  set ga-oams turtles ;; Set of all turtles as lh-hoams
  
  ;; Counts
  set g-no-of-autotrophs      0  ;; count of all autotrophs
  set g-no-of-heterotrophs    0  ;; count of all heterotrophs
  set g-no-of-oams            0  ;; count of all Open Atwood Machines
  set g-no-of-a-as-rh-hoams   0  ;; count of all autotrophs in rh-hoams
  set g-no-of-h-as-rh-hoams   0  ;; count of all heterotrophs in rh-hoams
  
  ;; Averages - autotrophs
  set g-a-ave-getf            0  ;; getf (mass) of autotrophs
  set g-a-ave-max-potential   0  ;; max pot of autotrophs
  set g-a-ave-cur-potential   0  ;; current pot of autotrophs

  ;; Averages - heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-age             0  ;; age of heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-getf            0  ;; getf (mass) of heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-lb-gene         0  ;; gene controlling size of prey
  set g-h-ave-ub-gene         0  ;; gene controlling size of prey
  set g-h-ave-RET             0  ;; RET of heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-EPM             0  ;; EPM of heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-max-potential   0  ;; max pot of heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-cur-potential   0  ;; current pot of heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-BITE-total      0  ;; average bite of heterotrophs
  set g-h-ave-BITE-xrg        0  ;; portion to exergy
  set g-h-ave-BITE-kinetic    0  ;; portion to kinetic energy

  ;; Averages - OAMs
  set g-h-ave-Eu              0  ;; Odum's efficiency of OAMs
  set g-h-ave-max-dt          0  ;; maximum drop time of OAMs
  set g-h-ave-cur-dt          0  ;; current drop time of OAMs
  set g-h-ave-rem-dt          0  ;; remaining drop time of OAMs
  set g-h-ave-dt-ratio        0  ;; ratio rem/max dt of OAMs

  ;; There are 3 scenarios possible
  set ge-scenario-herbivores  0  ;; Heterotrophs eat autotrophs
  set ge-scenario-omnivores   1  ;; Heterotrophs eat anything

  ;; Use the input from the chooser gs-scenario to invoke the selected scenario.
  f-set-scenario-number
  
  ;; For debugging the setup procedure, log the values of the globals.
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: Scenario number - " g-scenario-number ) 
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: Scenario name - "   gs-scenario )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-set: Random seed - "     g-use-this-seed )

  ;; For debugging the debug feature!!!  Suppressed now.
  ;; show ( word "SETUP: Debug Is " gb-debug-on )
  ;; show ( word "SETUP: Debug Status Is " gs-debug-status )
  ;; show ( word "SETUP: Step Chooser Is " gs-debug-step-chooser )
  ;; show ( word "SETUP: Flow Control Is " gb-debug-flow-on )

  set-default-shape autotrophs  "flower"  ;; pulled from shapes library
  set-default-shape heterotrophs  "arrow" ;; pulled from shapes library

  ask patches 
  [ 
    set pcolor brown
  ]
   
  reset-ticks      ;; restarts tick counter and runs setup commands within plots

  ;; Set the switches to default setup values.
  set gb-plot-data             true ;; Enables all plotting calls.
  set gb-stabilize-autotrophs  true ;; Enables autotroph stabilization.
  set gb-h-heterotrophs-on        1 ;; Enables heterotrophs.
  set gb-h-ub-gene-active      true ;; Activates ub gene for prey selection.
  set gb-h-lb-gene-active      true ;; Activates lb gene for prey selection.

  if( g-scenario-number = ge-scenario-herbivores )
  [
    set gb-plot-data            true ;; Enables all plotting calls.
    set gb-stabilize-autotrophs true ;; Enables autotroph stabilization.
    set gb-h-heterotrophs-on       1 ;; Enables heterotrophs.
    set gb-h-ub-gene-active     true ;; Activates ub gene for prey selection.
    set gb-h-lb-gene-active     true ;; Activates lb gene for prey selection.
  ]
  if( g-scenario-number = ge-scenario-omnivores )
  [
    set gb-plot-data            true ;; Enables all plotting calls.
    set gb-stabilize-autotrophs true ;; Enables autotroph stabilization.
    set gb-h-heterotrophs-on       1 ;; Enables heterotrophs.
    set gb-h-ub-gene-active     true ;; Activates ub gene for prey selection.
    set gb-h-lb-gene-active     true ;; Activates lb gene for prey selection.
  ]
  
  f-initialize-autotrophs
  if( gb-h-heterotrophs-on = 1 )
  [
    f-initialize-heterotrophs
  ]
  
  ;; This call requires that 'reset-ticks' be called first.
  ;; Update the aggregates again, after energetics computed.
  f-update-aggregates  ;; Totals and averages.
 
  ;; Clears unwanted zeros in plots.
  clear-all-plots
  setup-plots
  
  ;; Debug controls
  set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ;; Boolean, in association with chooser, turns debug LOG-TO-FILE on/off
  set g-halt-at-tick -1  ;; input variable to set a tick for stopping

  ;; ASSERT ( frb-EMgr-is-valid ) ( "EMgr validity check: D-Setup" ) -1
  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-set: procedure completed" 

  ;; end of to-setup
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Set the scenario number using the input from the chooser.

to f-set-scenario-number
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  set g-scenario-number ge-scenario-herbivores  ;; default
  if( gs-scenario = "Omnivores" )
    [ set g-scenario-number ge-scenario-omnivores ]

  ;; End f-set-scenario-number
end 


;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Initialize a population of autotrophs.

to f-initialize-autotrophs
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  create-autotrophs g-a-target-population 
  [ 
    f-initialize-new-autotroph 
    
    set heading 0
    
    ;; Stagger the amount of high-grade exergy from a 
    ;;   half load to a full load.
    let exergy floor( max-potential / 2 )
    set cur-potential ( exergy + ( random exergy ) ) 
    
    ;; Move each to a random point.
    setxy random-xcor random-ycor

    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-source cur-potential
    f-increment-cob-list breed ge-cob-generated
  ]

  ;; End f-initialize-autotrophs
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Initialize a single autotroph.

to f-initialize-new-autotroph
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a autotroph.

  ;; BUILT-IN ATTRIBUTES
  ;; who         ;; set automatically
  set heading 0  ;; direction of motion
  ;; xcor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; ycor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; pen-mode    ;; "up" or "down"
  ;; pen-size    ;; in pixels
  ;; size        ;; size relative to a patch, default is 1
  set color green

  ;; USER-DETERMINED ATTRIBUTES
  ;; Associated with autotroph dynamics.
  set mas-who -1                 ;; serial number of parent autotroph
  set default-colour      green  ;; distinctive colour for autotrophs
  set getf     g-a-initial-getf  ;; the getf (mass) in this autotroph
  set cause-of-death ge-cod-none ;; for statistical purposes
  set b-is-ready-to-die        0 ;; old (in age) or starved (in exergy)

  ;; Recalculate the life function controls that are scaled to getf (mass).
  f-set-getf-derived-autotroph-characters

  ;; An autotroph can only be in the role of prey, i.e. RH-HOAM.
  set b-is-in-oam ge-not-in-oam ;; 0 = no; 1 = RH-HOAM
  set pred-who             -1   ;; who number of predator haom.
  set trophic-level-floated 0   ;; trophic level of this autotroph

  ;; end f-initialize-new-autotroph
end 


;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Calculate all of the control variables that derive from getf.

to f-set-getf-derived-autotroph-characters
  ;; This routine is to be executed by an autotroph.
  
  ;; getf is the genetic-energy-transfer-factor.  In Atwood's Machine (the AM)
  ;;   the mass of the two weights determine this.  In organisms, some aspect
  ;;   of the composition of the prey and the digestive system of the predator
  ;;   determines this.  E.g. Panda bears and bamboo go together well, but 
  ;;   panda bears and eucalyptis leaves do not.  I call this the getf.
  
  
  ;; I use the mechanics of the AM to emulate the chemistry of digestion.  This
  ;;   affects both efficiency and duration of energy transfer.
  set max-potential ( getf * g-acceleration * g-drop-distance )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-pre-tick: A(max-xrg) - (" floor max-potential ")" )

  ;; End of f-set-getf-derived-autotroph-characters
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Initialize a population of heterotrophs.

to f-initialize-heterotrophs
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  create-heterotrophs g-h-initial-population 
  [ 
    f-initialize-new-heterotroph 
    
    let heading-list [ 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 ]
    let delta-heading 0
    set delta-heading ( item ( random 8 ) heading-list )
    set heading ( heading + delta-heading )

    set age ( random g-h-DAT )
    
    ;; Stagger the amount of high-grade exergy from a 
    ;;   half load to a full load.
    let exergy floor( max-potential / 2 )
    set cur-potential ( exergy + ( random exergy ) ) 
    
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-source cur-potential
    f-increment-cob-list breed ge-cob-generated

    ;; Make one step forward - well back from prey, giving them a head start.
    forward 1
  ]

  ;; End f-initialize-heterotrophs
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Initialize a single heterotroph.

to f-initialize-new-heterotroph
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.

  ;; BUILT-IN ATTRIBUTES
  ;; who         ;; set automatically
  set heading 0
  ;; xcor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; ycor        ;; min-pxcor <= xcor < max-pxcor
  ;; pen-mode    ;; "up" or "down"
  ;; pen-size    ;; in pixels
  ;; size        ;; size relative to a patch, default is 1
  set color red

  ;; USER-DETERMINED ATTRIBUTES
  ;; Associated with heterotroph.
  set mas-who -1         ;; serial number of parent heterotroph
  set age              0 ;; age of this heterotroph
  set default-colour red ;; distinctive colour for heterotrophs
  set getf g-h-initial-getf ;; the getf (mass) in this heterotroph.
  set lb-genetic-factor g-h-lb-lower-bound ;; lower bound on prey getf (mass).
  set ub-genetic-factor g-h-ub-upper-bound ;; upper bound on prey getf (mass).
  set cause-of-death ge-cod-none ;; for statistical purposes

  ;; Compute value of controls scaled to getf (scaled to mass).
  f-set-getf-derived-heterotroph-characters

  ;; Set the logic trigger flags.
  set b-is-ready-to-move      1 ;; i.e. true
  set b-is-ready-to-reproduce 0 ;; i.e. false
  set b-is-ready-to-die       0 ;; i.e. false
  
  ;; Unassociated dynamics.
  set max-potential ( getf * g-acceleration * g-drop-distance )
  set cur-potential 0 ;; amount of gravitational potential energy 

  ;; Associated with OAM dynamics.
  set b-is-in-oam ge-not-in-oam ;; 0=no; 1=RH-HOAM; 2=LH-HOAM
  
  ;; Associated with OAM dynamics.
  ;; These contain data for the OAM consisting of coupled predator/prey.
  set prey-who        -1 ;; an invalid value; who number of prey haom.
  set pred-who        -1 ;; an invalid value; who number of predator haom.
  set no-of-prey-eaten      0 ;; the number of prey captured and eaten
  set sum-of-t-plus-one     0 ;; an aggregator for trophic level data
  set trophic-level-floated 1 ;; trophic level of this heterotroph
  set trophic-level-rounded 1 ;; trophic level of this heterotroph

  set Eu-in-oam        1 ;; Eu is Odum's efficiency.
  set max-drop-time    0 ;; Drop time for this OAM.
  set cur-drop-time    0 ;; Time since drop started.
  set rem-drop-time    0 ;; Remaining drop time.
  set drop-time-ratio  0 ;; Fraction of drop time remaining.

  ;; end f-initialize-new-heterotroph
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Calculate all of the control variables that derive from getf (mass).

to f-set-getf-derived-heterotroph-characters
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.
  
  ;; getf is the genetic-energy-transfer-factor.  In Atwood's Machine (the AM)
  ;;   the mass of the two weights determine this.  In organisms, some aspect
  ;;   of the composition of the prey and the digestive system of the predator
  ;;   determines this.  E.g. Panda bears and bamboo go together well, but 
  ;;   panda bears and eucalyptis leaves do not.  I call this the getf.
  
  
  ;; I use the mechanics of the AM to emulate the chemistry of digestion.  This
  ;;   affects both efficiency and duration of energy transfer.
  set max-potential ( getf * g-acceleration * g-drop-distance )
  set RET ( g-h-RET-factor * max-potential ) ;; Reproductive Energy Threshold
  set EPM ( g-h-EPM-factor * max-potential ) ;; Energy Per Move
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-xxx: H(max-xrg,RET,EPM) - (" 
    floor max-potential "," 
    floor RET "," 
    floor EPM ")" )

  ;; End of f-set-getf-derived-heterotroph-characters
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Reset the default values for the interface-declared items.

to f-reset-default-parameters 
  ;; The observer executes this routine.

  ;; Switches, sliders and choosers implicitly declare global variables.  The
  ;;   values in these variables are parameters for the model, and many 
  ;;   combinations of those parameters are not sustainable.  However, the
  ;;   values in those user interface devices are stored with the model and
  ;;   are persistant across a save/load action.  The default values must
  ;;   be reset on load, or available to a user as a parameter set.  The
  ;;   purpose of this routine is to store at least one viable set of 
  ;;   parameter values.
  
  ;; Initialize the Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG).
  set g-use-this-seed 7
  
  ;; Restore the values of the lb and ub switches.
  set gb-h-ub-gene-active true
  set gb-h-lb-gene-active true
   
  ;;-----------------------------------------------
  ;; BIOPHYSICAL SUB-SYSTEM CONTROLS AND PARAMETERS
  ;;-----------------------------------------------

  ;; Slider range settings are shown as (Min,Increment,Max)
  set g-drop-distance        100       ;; ( 50,  5,   200 ) meters
  set g-acceleration           1       ;; (  1,  0.10, 12 ) m/s/s
  set g-a-target-population  500       ;; Target carrying capacity (50, 10, 10000).

  set g-h-initial-population 100       ;; # of heterotrophs (10,1,100) heterotrophs
  set g-h-RET-factor           0.95    ;; ( 0.10, 0.01, 1.00 ) Joules/Joule
  ifelse( g-scenario-number = ge-scenario-herbivores )
  [
    set g-h-EPM-factor         0.0050  ;; ( 0.00, 0.0001, 0.10 ) Joules/Joule
  ]
  ;; Else
  [
    set g-h-EPM-factor         0.0125  ;; ( 0.00, 0.0001, 0.10 ) Joules/Joule
  ]
  set g-h-mutation-factor      0.10    ;; delta-getf; Slider (0,0.01,1)
  set g-h-satiation-factor     0.98    ;; feeding trigger; Slider (0,0.01,1)
  ;; NOTE: The satiation-factor must be greater than the RET-factor.
  set g-h-ub-upper-bound       4       ;; Upper bound on the ub gene; Slider (2,0.1,20)
  set g-h-lb-lower-bound       1       ;; lower bound on the lb gene; Slider (1,0.1,4)
end 


;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; SECTION D – GO OR MAIN-LOOP PROCEDURE( S )
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; The go button

to go
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  ;; Stop codes:
  ;; All stop decisions must be here in the 'go' procedure, as it causes an
  ;;   exit from the current procdure only.

  if( g-halt-at-tick = ticks  ) 
  [
    set g-halt-at-tick -1
    stop
  ]
  
  let b-should-stop-now false
  if( count turtles <= 0 ) [ set b-should-stop-now true ]
  if( b-should-stop-now = true )
  [
    stop
  ]

  ;; MANUAL CHANGE FOR DEBUG
  ;; If needed, each check for validity can be enabled between steps.
  ;; They have been suppressed (turned into comments) for the sake 
  ;;   of speed of execution, but can be re-enabled if a bug has 
  ;;   somehow been re-introduced.
  ;; A single call to the validity check has been left active inside of the
  ;;   Do-Post-Tick step.  If it flags a problem, re-activate these to
  ;;   narrow down where the problem starts.
  
  ;; Major steps or functions, done once per tick, in order of execution.
  do-pre-tick
  ;; if( frb-agents-are-all-valid = false ) 
  ;;   [ LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Agents failed validity test: Do-pre-tick." ) ]

  do-move
  ;; if( frb-agents-are-all-valid = false ) 
  ;;   [ LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Agents failed validity test: Do-move." ) ]

  do-feed
  ;; if( frb-agents-are-all-valid = false ) 
  ;;   [ LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Agents failed validity test: do-feed." ) ]

  do-reproduce
  ;; if( frb-agents-are-all-valid = false ) 
  ;;   [ LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Agents failed validity test: Do-reproduce." ) ]

  do-die
  ;; if( frb-agents-are-all-valid = false ) 
  ;;   [ LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Agents failed validity test: Do-die." ) ]

  do-post-tick
  ;; if( frb-agents-are-all-valid = false ) 
  ;;   [ LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Agents failed validity test: Do-post-tick." ) ]
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; D1 - do-pre-tick procedure( s )
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

to do-pre-tick
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ifelse( ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "all" ) or ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "pre-tick" ) )
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 1 LOG-TO-FILE "" LOG-TO-FILE word "Do-pre-tick: Debug on.; tick = " ticks ]
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ]
  ]
  
  ;; Enter all commands that need to be done before a tick begins.
  ;; Supressed. f-update-aggregates
  
  ;; Advance the tick counter by 1 tick.
  ifelse( gb-plot-data = true )
  [
    ;; Advance the ticks by one and update the plots.
    tick
    ;; 'tick' is exactly the same as 'update-plots' except that the tick counter 
    ;;   is incremented before the plot commands are executed.
    
  ]
  ;; else
  [
    ;; Advance ticks by one but do not update the plots.
    tick-advance 1
  ]
  ;; End else

  ;; Once the data is plotted, the per-tick counts can be cleared.
  ;; List to hold counts of cause of death.
  set gl-causes-of-death-a-per-tick   ( n-values 6 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-death-h-per-tick   ( n-values 6 [0] )
  ;; List to hold counts of cause of birth.
  set gl-causes-of-birth-a-per-tick   ( n-values 2 [0] )
  set gl-causes-of-birth-h-per-tick   ( n-values 2 [0] )

  ;; Reset the scenario number, in case the chooser has been changed.
  f-set-scenario-number
  
  ;; Clear the per-tick data for energy sinks.
  ;; This call must happen before the autotroph population is stabilized.
  set gl-sinks-per-tick ( n-values 20 [0] )
  
  ;; Stabilize the autotroph population at the target population size.
  f-stabilize-autotroph-population
  
  ;; Re-set g-h-satiation-factor in case g-h-RET-factor has changed.
  ;; Hunger must set in at or above the cost of reproduction.
  if( g-h-satiation-factor < g-h-RET-factor )
    [ set g-h-satiation-factor ( 0.01 + precision g-h-RET-factor 2 ) ]
  if( g-h-satiation-factor >= 0.99 ) 
    [ 
      set g-h-satiation-factor 0.99 
      set g-h-RET-factor 0.98
    ]
  
  if( gb-h-heterotrophs-on = 1 )
  [
    ask heterotrophs [ set age ( age + 1 ) ]
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-pre-tick: heterotrophs aged." )
  ]
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-pre-tick: Halt at tick - " g-halt-at-tick  ) 
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-pre-tick: Current tick - " ticks ) 

  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-pre-tick: Routine completed."
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Stabilize the autotroph population
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

to f-stabilize-autotroph-population
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  if( gb-stabilize-autotrophs = true )
  [
    let current-a-population ( count autotrophs )
    if( current-a-population < g-a-target-population )
    [
      let add-this-many ( g-a-target-population - current-a-population )
      let this-patch patch 0 0
      ask this-patch
      [
        sprout-autotrophs add-this-many
        [
          f-initialize-new-autotroph
          set heading 0

          ;; Set the amount of high-grade exergy at a full load.
          set cur-potential max-potential 

          ;; Move each to a random point.
          setxy random-xcor random-ycor

          f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-source cur-potential
          f-increment-cob-list breed ge-cob-generated
        ]
      ]
    ]
  ]

  ;; End f-stabilize-autotroph-population
end 
  
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; D2 – do-move procedure(s)
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

to do-move
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ifelse( ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "all" ) or ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "move" ) )
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 1 LOG-TO-FILE "" LOG-TO-FILE word "Do-move: Debug on; tick = " ticks ]
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ]
  ]
  
  ;; Implement 'arrow' behaviour from PSoup application.  I.e. a strong 
  ;;   probability of movement directly forward, and small probability of a 
  ;;   slight turn.  This represents the most effective search pattern for
  ;;   an arena that is wrapped on all sides.  Of course, it doesn't matter for
  ;;   the autotrophs that get energy from the sun, but it will matter 
  ;;   for the heterotrophs.
  
  let heading-list [ -45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 ]

  ;; Autotrophs are plants, and normally would not move, but I don't want
  ;;   bias to leak in due to plants being stationary.  In order to ensure that
  ;;   plants are equally accessible to all heterotrophs regardless of their
  ;;   parentage or location of birth I want them to roam far from parents and
  ;;   circumstances of birth.  They must be independently discovered and eaten.

  ;; Then the heterotrophs move.
  if( gb-h-heterotrophs-on = 1 )
  [
    ;; Heterotrophs move later.  Same 'arrow' search pattern.
    ask heterotrophs
    [
      if( b-is-ready-to-move = 1 )
      [
        let delta-heading ( item ( random length heading-list ) heading-list )
        set heading ( heading + delta-heading )
        forward 1
        
        ;; The heterotroph converts some exergy to waste kinetic energy as it moves.
        f-heterotroph-expends-EPM
      ]  ;; End if( b-is-ready-to-move = 1 )
    ]  ;; End ask autotrophs

    ;; A heterotroph which is acting as lh-hoam (predator, eating) does not move
    ;;   but nevertheless expends energy on life functions.
    let feeding-predator-agentset ( heterotrophs with [b-is-in-oam = ge-lh-hoam] )
    if( count feeding-predator-agentset > 0 )
    [
      ask feeding-predator-agentset
      [
        ;; Exact the price of living from this predator.
        ;; The heterotroph converts some exergy to waste kinetic energy as it moves.
        f-heterotroph-expends-EPM
      ]  ;; End ask feeding-predator-agentset
    ]  ;; End if( count feeding-predator-agentset > 0 )
  ]  ;; End if( gb-h-heterotrophs-on = 1 )

  ;; Supressed. f-update-aggregates

  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-move: procedure completed"
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; A heterotroph expends EPM of energy from the appropriate pool to the sink.

to f-heterotroph-expends-EPM
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.

  if( ( b-is-in-oam = ge-not-in-oam ) or
      ( b-is-in-oam = ge-lh-hoam ) )
  [
    ;; When a heterotroph moves it expends energy out of the pool of exergy.
    ;; Determine if this heterotroph has sufficient energy.
    ifelse ( cur-potential >= EPM )
    [
      f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-move EPM
      set cur-potential ( cur-potential - EPM ) 
    ]
    ;; Else
    [
      f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-move cur-potential
      set cur-potential 0 
      set cause-of-death ge-cod-hunger
    ]
    ;; End else
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-move: H(heading,xrg,die-flag) - (" 
      heading "," floor cur-potential "," b-is-ready-to-die ")" )
  ]
  
  if( b-is-in-oam = ge-rh-hoam )
  [
    ;; When a heterotroph is associated with a heterotroph as prey in an OAM 
    ;;   then it expends energy out of the "rh" pool of exergy (-una-).
    ;; This would only take action in parasite mode.  
    ;;  - In predator mode the autotroph is not able to move or function, 
    ;;    and essentially behaves as dead until all of the exergy is removed.  
    ;;    this is the dedault mode.
    ;;  - In parasite mode the autotroph is not able to move, but still functions
    ;;    and expends exergy during each move.
    
    ;; TODO: Leave empty until parasite mode implemented.
  ]
  
  ;; End of f-heterotroph-expends-EPM  
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Store data in the lists of sinks.

to f-store-data-in-sink [ sinktype value ]
  ;; This routine is to be executed by anyone.
  
  ;; Record it in the per-tick list.
  let old-value ( item sinktype gl-sinks-per-tick )
  let new-value ( old-value + value )
  set gl-sinks-per-tick ( replace-item sinktype gl-sinks-per-tick new-value )

  ;; Record it in the cumulative list.
  set old-value ( item sinktype gl-sinks-cumulative )
  set new-value ( old-value + value )
  set gl-sinks-cumulative ( replace-item sinktype gl-sinks-cumulative new-value )
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Increment the count in the lists of causes of death.

to f-increment-cod-list [ breedtype codtype ]
  ;; This routine is to be executed by anyone.
  
  ifelse( breedtype = autotrophs )
  [
    ;; Record it in the per-tick list.
    let old-count ( item codtype gl-causes-of-death-a-per-tick )
    let new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-death-a-per-tick 
      ( replace-item codtype gl-causes-of-death-a-per-tick new-count )
    
    ;; Record it in the cumulative list.
    set old-count ( item codtype gl-causes-of-death-a-cumulative )
    set new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-death-a-cumulative 
      ( replace-item codtype gl-causes-of-death-a-cumulative new-count )
  ]
  ;; Else breed is heterotrophs
  [
    ;; Record it in the per-tick list.
    let old-count ( item codtype gl-causes-of-death-h-per-tick )
    let new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-death-h-per-tick 
      ( replace-item codtype gl-causes-of-death-h-per-tick new-count )
    
    ;; Record it in the cumulative list.
    set old-count ( item codtype gl-causes-of-death-h-cumulative )
    set new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-death-h-cumulative 
      ( replace-item codtype gl-causes-of-death-h-cumulative new-count )
  ]
  ;; End else
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Increment the count in the lists of causes of birth.

to f-increment-cob-list [ breedtype cobtype ]
  ;; This routine is to be executed by anyone.
  ifelse( breedtype = autotrophs )
  [
    ;; show cobtype
    ;; Record it in the per-tick list.
    let old-count ( item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-a-per-tick )
    let new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-birth-a-per-tick 
      ( replace-item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-a-per-tick new-count )
    
    ;; Record it in the cumulative list.
    set old-count ( item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-a-cumulative )
    set new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-birth-a-cumulative 
      ( replace-item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-a-cumulative new-count )
  ]
  ;; Else breed is heterotrophs
  [
    ;; Record it in the per-tick list.
    let old-count ( item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-h-per-tick )
    let new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-birth-h-per-tick 
      ( replace-item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-h-per-tick new-count )
    
    ;; Record it in the cumulative list.
    set old-count ( item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-h-cumulative )
    set new-count ( old-count + 1 )
    set gl-causes-of-birth-h-cumulative 
      ( replace-item cobtype gl-causes-of-birth-h-cumulative new-count )
  ]
  ;; End else
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; D3 – do-feed procedure(s)
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

to do-feed
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ifelse( ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "all" ) or ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "feed" ) )
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 1 LOG-TO-FILE "" LOG-TO-FILE word "Do-feed: Debug on; tick = " ticks ]
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ]
  ]
  
  if( gb-h-heterotrophs-on = 1 )
  [
    ;; Heterotrophs feed on other HOAMs.
    ;; Heterotrophs feed second.
    ask heterotrophs
    [
      ASSERT ( breed = heterotrophs ) ( "Is not heterotroph." ) who
      ;; This predator may be in one of three states:
      ;;  - Currently hunting for prey.
      ;;  - Currently eating prey.
      ;;  - Currently being eaten by another predator.
      ifelse( b-is-in-oam = ge-not-in-oam )
      [ f-hunt-for-prey ]
      ;; Else - is in oam already.
      [ f-eat-or-be-eaten ]
      ;; End Else
    ] ;; End of ask heterotrophs
  ] ;; End of if( gb-h-heterotrophs-on = 1 )
  
  ;; Supressed. f-update-aggregates

  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-feed: procedure completed"
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Heterotrophs hunt for prey.

to f-hunt-for-prey
  ;; This routine is to be executed by an heterotroph.
  ;; This heterotroph is not in an oam.  It is not feeding.  It is not being
  ;;   fed upon.  It will check whether suitable prey is within reach, and,
  ;;   if yes, will form an oam as the lh-hoam, and begin feeding upon such 
  ;;   prey.
   
  ;; Is this heterotroph already satiated?  Is it hungry?
  let satiation-level ( cur-potential / max-potential )
  ;; TODO: put satiation-factor in slider.
  ifelse( satiation-level < g-h-satiation-factor ) 
  [
    ;; It is hungry.
    LOG-TO-FILE ( "  Do-feed: Hunting." )
    ;; Establish which patch it is in.
    let my-who who
    let my-getf getf
    let lb-getf ( getf * lb-genetic-factor )
    let ub-getf ( getf * ub-genetic-factor )
      
    ;; Establish a list of potential prey.
    ;; Potential prey must be mobile (i.e. not already part of an immobile
    ;;   predator-prey feeding pair, an OAM).
    ;; Potential prey must be within reach, in this patch or an immediately 
    ;;   neighbouring patch.
    ;; Potential prey must have sufficient getf (proxy-mass) to act as an 
    ;;   RH-HOAM when forming an Open Atwood's Machine.  I.e. getf > my-getf.
    ;; Organism is not a potential prey for itself.
    
    ;; Within the above restrictions, some switches or operational choices
    ;;   restrict the prey list further.
    ;; - If the scenario allows onmivores, heterotrophs may eat heterotrophs.
    ;; - If the lb gene is active, the getf of the prey must be > lb-getf.
    ;; - If the ub gene is active, the getf of the prey must be < ub-getf.

    ;; A dummy let statement.
    let prey-list []
    
    ifelse( g-scenario-number = ge-scenario-omnivores )
    [
      ;; Heterotrophs can feed on other heterotrophs or autotrophs 
      ;;   (i.e. all turtles).
      set prey-list ( ( turtles-on neighbors ) with 
        [ ( b-is-in-oam = ge-not-in-oam ) and 
          ( who != my-who ) and 
          ( getf > my-getf ) ] )

      ;; Test the lb gene.
      if( ( any? prey-list ) and ( gb-h-lb-gene-active = true ) )
        [ set prey-list ( prey-list with [getf > lb-getf] ) ]

      ;; Test the ub gene.
      if( ( any? prey-list ) and ( gb-h-ub-gene-active = true ) )
        [ set prey-list ( prey-list with [getf < ub-getf] ) ]


      ;; Select the most energetic of available prey.
      if( any? prey-list )
        [
          set prey-list ( prey-list with 
            [cur-potential = ( max [cur-potential] of prey-list ) ] )
        ]
    ]
    ;; Else herbivores
    [
      ;; Heterotrophs feed on autotrophs only.
      set prey-list ( ( autotrophs-on neighbors ) with 
        [ ( b-is-in-oam = ge-not-in-oam ) and 
          ( who != my-who ) and 
          ( getf > my-getf ) ] )

      ;; Test the lb gene.
      if( ( any? prey-list ) and ( gb-h-lb-gene-active = true ) )
        [ set prey-list ( prey-list with [getf > lb-getf] ) ]

      ;; Test the ub gene.
      if( ( any? prey-list ) and ( gb-h-ub-gene-active = true ) )
        [ set prey-list ( prey-list with [getf < ub-getf] ) ]


      ;; Select the most energetic of available prey.
      if( any? prey-list )
        [
          set prey-list ( prey-list with 
            [cur-potential = ( max [cur-potential] of prey-list ) ] )
        ]
    ]
    ;; End else Herbivores
    
    if( any? prey-list )
    [
      ;; These two HOAMs (Halves of an Open Atwood's Machine) are now coupled
      ;;   together as an Open Atwood's Machine (OAM).  Using the terminology
      ;;   of the AM, the exergy in the RH-HOAM is transformed into:
      ;;     (a) kinetic energy that will be exhausted as waste heat; and 
      ;;     (b) gravitational potential energy as the mass of the LH-HOAM 
      ;;         is raised.
      
      ;; The two HOAMs are so linked and immobile until the consumption of 
      ;;   the RH-HOAM (i.e. the prey) is completed, at which time the predator
      ;;   will continue the hunt and the prey is removed from the model.

      let prey one-of prey-list
      
      ;; The hunt is successful.
      set prey-who ( [who] of prey )
      let predator-who ( [who] of self )
      ask prey
      [
        ;; Mark this HOAM as captured prey.
        if( breed = heterotrophs )
        [
          set b-is-ready-to-move 0
        ]
        set b-is-in-oam ge-rh-hoam
        set color violet
        set pred-who predator-who
      ]
      ;; Mark this HOAM as predator.
      set b-is-ready-to-move 0
      set b-is-in-oam ge-lh-hoam
      set color yellow
      face turtle prey-who
      LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-feed: Captured - " prey )
      
      ;; Adjust the trophic level data for this predator.
      set no-of-prey-eaten ( no-of-prey-eaten + 1 )
      set sum-of-t-plus-one 
        ( sum-of-t-plus-one + ( 1 + ( [trophic-level-floated] of prey ) ) )
      set trophic-level-floated ( sum-of-t-plus-one / no-of-prey-eaten )
      set trophic-level-rounded round( trophic-level-floated )
      
      ;; The predator/prey pair are now locked in an OAM.
      ;; The predator takes a first bite.
      f-effect-per-tick-xrg-xfer-in-oam
    ]
  ]  ;; End of if( g-h-satiation-factor )
  ;; Else
  [
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-feed: Satiated!  Not hunting." )
  ]
  ;; End Else
  
  ;; End of f-hunt-for-prey
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Effect the exergy transfer within the OAM associated with one tick of time.

to f-effect-per-tick-xrg-xfer-in-oam
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph, in the role of lh-hoam.
  
  ASSERT ( b-is-in-oam = ge-lh-hoam ) ( "Not an lh-hoam." ) who
  let rh-hoam ( turtle prey-who )
  let prey-breed ( [breed] of rh-hoam )
  
  ;; getf stands for genetic-energy-transfer-factor, and is a proxy for
  ;;   mass in an AM.  So "heavy" and "light" are in reference to mass.
  let heavy-mass ( [getf] of rh-hoam )
  let light-mass ( [getf] of self    )
  set Eu-in-oam ( light-mass / heavy-mass )
  let mass-total ( heavy-mass + light-mass )
  let mass-diff  ( heavy-mass - light-mass )
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: self - " self )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: rh-hoam - " rh-hoam )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: light-mass - " light-mass )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: heavy-mass - " heavy-mass )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: Eu-in-oam - " Eu-in-oam )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: mass-total - " mass-total )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: mass-diff - " mass-diff )
  
  let max-rh-potential ( [max-potential] of rh-hoam )
  let cur-rh-potential ( [cur-potential] of rh-hoam )
  let numerator ( max-rh-potential - cur-rh-potential ) 
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: max-rh-potential - " max-rh-potential )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: cur-rh-potential - " cur-rh-potential )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: numerator - " numerator )

  let mass-assembly-ratio ( mass-diff / mass-total )
  let factor ( heavy-mass * g-acceleration * g-acceleration / 2 )
  let denominator ( mass-assembly-ratio * factor )

  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: mass-assembly-ratio - " mass-assembly-ratio )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: factor - " factor )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: denominator - " denominator )

  let time ( ( numerator / denominator ) ^ 0.5 )
  let time-plus-one ( time + 1 )
  let time-plus-two ( time + 2 )
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: time - " time )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: time-plus-one - " time-plus-one )

  set max-drop-time ( ( ( 2 * g-drop-distance ) / 
      ( g-acceleration * mass-assembly-ratio ) ) ^ 0.5 ) ;; Drop time for this OAM.
  set cur-drop-time    time ;; Effective time since drop started.
  set rem-drop-time    ( max-drop-time - cur-drop-time )
  set drop-time-ratio  ( rem-drop-time / max-drop-time ) ;; Fraction of drop time remaining.

  ;; The variable 'time' is the effective time, as if this OAM had started to 
  ;;   drop with current rh potential equal to its maximum. 
  ;; Now, I need to calculate, using the discrete time OAM formulae, the
  ;;   amount of potential that is transferred/transformed in the next tick.
  let delta-rh-potential 
    ( -1 * denominator * ( ( time ^ 2 ) - ( time-plus-one ^ 2 ) ) )
  ;; The sign has been reversed to make this a positive value.
  let next-delta-rh-potential 
    ( -1 * denominator * ( ( time-plus-one ^ 2 ) - ( time-plus-two ^ 2 ) ) )
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: delta-rh-potential - " delta-rh-potential )

  ;; I cannot remove more potential energy than is currently there.
  if( delta-rh-potential > cur-rh-potential )
    [ set delta-rh-potential cur-rh-potential ]
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: delta-rh-potential - " delta-rh-potential )

  ;; Use the efficiency to break this into potential and kinetic.
  let delta-lh-potential ( Eu-in-oam * delta-rh-potential )
  let delta-oam-kinetic ( delta-rh-potential - delta-lh-potential )
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: delta-lh-potential - " delta-lh-potential )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: delta-oam-kinetic - " delta-oam-kinetic )

  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: (ticks,epm,bite) - (" ticks "," epm "," floor delta-lh-potential ")" )

  ;; Now, I need to transfer the appropriate potential energy to the lh-hoam.
  let available-room ( max-potential - cur-potential )
  let excess-potential 0

  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: available-room - " available-room )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "    Do-feed: excess-potential - " excess-potential )

  if( available-room < delta-lh-potential ) 
  [ 
    ;; To maintain the rate of transformation of energy from the OAM I do not
    ;;   want to pro-rate the amount taken from the RH-HOAM down, nor do I
    ;;   want to reduce the kinetic energy exhausted.  I only want to reduce
    ;;   the amount received by the predator, and send the rest to two sinks,
    ;;   one sink for kinetic, and one for excess exergy.
    set excess-potential ( delta-lh-potential - available-room )
    set delta-lh-potential available-room 
  ]
  
  ;; Transfer the energy and expel the exhaust of both types.
  ;; Store energy in the predator.
  set cur-potential ( cur-potential + delta-lh-potential )
  ask rh-hoam
  [
    ;; Remove the energy from the prey.
    set cur-potential ( cur-potential - delta-rh-potential )
  ]
  
  ;; Send the kinetic energy to the sink now.  In a normal OAM the kinetic energy is
  ;;   not expelled to sink until MH hits the floor.  However, because I want to
  ;;   put new potential in and take it out whenever it is appropriate, so I don't
  ;;   want to hold kinetic energy for a moment that may not come in a long while.
  ;; So, I expel it immediately.
  
  ;; Exhaust kinetic energy and excess potential to appropriate sinks.
  ifelse( prey-breed = autotrophs )
  [
    ;; Prey is an autotroph.
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-a-food-exergy delta-lh-potential
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-a-kinetic   delta-oam-kinetic
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-a-food-excess excess-potential
  ]
  ;; Else
  [
    ;; Prey is a heterotroph.
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-food-exergy delta-lh-potential
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-kinetic delta-oam-kinetic
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-food-excess excess-potential
  ]
  ;; End else
  
  ;; Finally, if the prey is almost emptied, such that it is inefficient
  ;;   for the predator to continue eating, and it would be more efficient
  ;;   to release this prey and start eating another, then the prey is
  ;;   released.  The real reason for this little piece of logic is to
  ;;   ensure that there is no noise or bias introduced due to a mismatch
  ;;   of bite size and energy available in the prey.  I want every energy
  ;;   transfer, in every tick, to perfectly represent a transfer consistent
  ;;   with the dynamics of the AM.  So partial bites are not allowed.
  if( next-delta-rh-potential > ( [cur-potential] of rh-hoam ) )
  [
    f-predator-releases-prey
  ]
  
  ;; End of f-effect-per-tick-xrg-xfer-in-oam
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Heterotrophs eat or are eaten

to f-eat-or-be-eaten
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph in an OAM.
  
  ;; The heterotroph is in an OAM.
  ifelse( b-is-in-oam = ge-lh-hoam )
  [
    ;; Access the prey.
    let rh-hoam ( turtle prey-who )
    let cur-rh-potential ( [cur-potential] of rh-hoam )
        
    ;; The heterotroph is in predator mode.
    if( cur-rh-potential > 0 )
    [
      ;; And there is food on the table.
      f-effect-per-tick-xrg-xfer-in-oam
    ]
  ]
  ;; Else
  [
    ;; Heterotroph is prey.  No action required.
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-feed: Heterotroph is prey." )
  ]
  ;; End else.
  
  ;; End of f-eat-or-be-eaten
end 


;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; D4 – do-reproduce procedure(s)
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

to do-reproduce
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ifelse( ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "all" ) or ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "reproduce" ) )
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 1 LOG-TO-FILE "" LOG-TO-FILE word "Do-reproduce: Debug on; tick = " ticks ]
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ]
  ]
  
  ;; Autotrophs come from forcible maintenance of population.
  ;;   The population is topped up with sufficient fully energized 
  ;;   autotrophs in the 'do-pre-tick' function.
  
  if( gb-h-heterotrophs-on = 1 )
  [
    ask heterotrophs
    [
      f-set-heterotroph-repro-flag
      f-reproduce-heterotroph
    ]
  ]
  
  ;; Supressed. f-update-aggregates

  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-reproduce: procedure completed"
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; f-set-heterotroph-repro-flag

to f-set-heterotroph-repro-flag
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.
  
  set b-is-ready-to-reproduce 1        ;; i.e. true
  if( cur-potential < RET )
    [ set b-is-ready-to-reproduce 0 ]  ;; i.e. false due to lack of health.
  ;; TODO: if( age < g-h-RAT )
  ;; TODO:   [ set b-is-ready-to-reproduce 0 ]  ;; i.e. false due to lack of maturity.
  if( b-is-in-oam = ge-rh-hoam ) 
    [ set b-is-ready-to-reproduce 0 ]  ;; i.e. false due to being eaten.
  
  if( b-is-ready-to-reproduce = 1 )
  [
    LOG-TO-FILE 
      ( word "  Do-reproduce: H(age,xrg,oam-flag,rep-flag) - (" 
        age "," floor cur-potential "," b-is-in-oam "," b-is-ready-to-reproduce ")" )
  ]
    
  ;; End f-set-heterotroph-repro-flag
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; A heterotroph reproduces via fission, one mother having two daughters.

to f-reproduce-heterotroph
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.
  
  if( b-is-ready-to-reproduce = 1 )   ;; 1 = true
  [
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: Heterotroph Ma - " who )

    ;; If this heterotroph is in the process of eating prey at the moment that
    ;;   it reproduces, the prey is set free, with a total exergy equal to the
    ;;   unexpended exergy plus associated kinetic energy.
    if( b-is-in-oam = ge-lh-hoam ) [ f-predator-releases-prey ]
    
    let my-who who
    let my-exergy cur-potential
    let one-share-of-exergy floor( my-exergy / 2 )
    let excess-exergy ( my-exergy - ( 2 * one-share-of-exergy ) )
    
    let my-patch patch-here
    let mothers-getf ( [getf] of self )
    let mothers-lb-gene ( [lb-genetic-factor] of self )
    let mothers-ub-gene ( [ub-genetic-factor] of self )
    ask my-patch
    [
      sprout-heterotrophs 2
      [
        f-initialize-new-heterotroph
        ;; Note the mother of this daughter.
        set mas-who my-who
        ;; Cause the getf of this heterotroph to mutate.
        ;; Remember that getf is a proxy for mass in the AM.
        
        LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: Heterotroph Dx - " who )
        ;; Copy the getf, then mutate it.
        ;; Remember that getf is a proxy for mass in the AM.
        set getf mothers-getf
        set lb-genetic-factor mothers-lb-gene
        set ub-genetic-factor mothers-ub-gene
        f-mutate-new-heterotroph
        ;; In rare cases a mother may be full of exergy and a daughter may be
        ;;   unable to accept a full share, due to mutation of getf downwards.
        ;;   getf scales the maximum amount of energy that can be held because
        ;;   it is analogous to mass in the AM.
        let endowment-rejected 
          ( fr-heterotroph-accepts-endowment one-share-of-exergy )
        LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: endowment-rejected - " endowment-rejected )
        set excess-exergy ( excess-exergy + endowment-rejected )
        f-increment-cob-list breed ge-cob-fission
      ]
    ]
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-die-fiss excess-exergy
    set cause-of-death ge-cod-fission
    ;; die  ;; The mother disappears after fission, leaving two daughters.
  ]
    
  ;; End f-reproduce-heterotroph
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; An new heterotroph mutates, chainging the ability to store exergy or attack
;;   suitable prey.

to f-mutate-new-heterotroph
  ;; This routine is to be executed by an heterotroph.
  
  ;; First, mutate the getf (mass) that controls the ability to store exergy.
  ;; Remember that getf is a proxy for mass in the AM.
  ;; Determine whether it mutates upwards or downwards.
  let old-getf getf
  let sign ( -1 + 2 * ( random 2 ) )  ;; either a -1 or a 1.
  let delta-getf ( g-h-mutation-factor * getf * sign )
  set delta-getf ( delta-getf * ( random-float 1 ) )
  set getf ( getf + delta-getf )
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: Mutate getf - H(old,delta,new) - (" 
    floor old-getf "," floor delta-getf "," floor getf ")" )
  
  ;; Recalculate the life function controls that are scaled to getf (mass).
  ;; Remember that getf is a proxy for mass in the AM.
  f-set-getf-derived-heterotroph-characters
  
  ;; Next, mutate the gene that controls the minimum getf (mass) of prey.
  ;; Remember that getf is a proxy for mass in the AM.
  ;; Determine whether it mutates upwards or downwards.
  let old-gene lb-genetic-factor
  set sign ( -1 + 2 * ( random 2 ) )  ;; either a -1 or a 1.
  let delta-gene ( g-h-mutation-factor * 2.5 * sign ) ;; 2.5 = scaling factor
  set delta-gene ( delta-gene * ( random-float 1 ) )
  set lb-genetic-factor ( lb-genetic-factor + delta-gene )
  ;; If its less than one, reflect the overage above one.
  if( lb-genetic-factor < g-h-lb-lower-bound ) 
    [ set lb-genetic-factor ( ( 2 * g-h-lb-lower-bound ) - lb-genetic-factor ) ]
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: Mutate lb gene - H(old,delta,new) - (" 
    precision old-gene 4 "," 
    precision delta-gene 4 "," 
    precision lb-genetic-factor 4 ")" )
  
  ;; Last, mutate the gene that controls the maximum getf (mass) of prey.
  ;; Remember that getf is a proxy for mass in the AM.
  ;; Determine whether it mutates upwards or downwards.
  set old-gene ub-genetic-factor
  set sign ( -1 + 2 * ( random 2 ) )  ;; either a -1 or a 1.
  set delta-gene ( g-h-mutation-factor * 2.5 * sign ) ;; 2.5 = scaling factor
  set delta-gene ( delta-gene * ( random-float 1 ) )
  set ub-genetic-factor ( ub-genetic-factor + delta-gene )
  ;; If its more than four, reflect the overage below four.
  if( ub-genetic-factor > g-h-ub-upper-bound ) 
    [ set ub-genetic-factor ( ( 2 * g-h-ub-upper-bound ) - ub-genetic-factor ) ]
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: Mutate ub gene - H(old,delta,new) - (" 
    precision old-gene 4 "," 
    precision delta-gene 4 "," 
    precision ub-genetic-factor 4 ")" )
  
  ;; End of f-mutate-new-heterotroph
end 
  
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; An new heterotroph accepts what exergy it can.

to-report fr-heterotroph-accepts-endowment [endowment-offered]
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.
  
  LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: endowment-offered - " endowment-offered )
  let endowment-remaining 0
  
  ;; Calculate the maximum energy charge allowed for this heterotroph.
  ;;   Remember that getf is a proxy for mass in the AM.
  let max-exergy ( getf * g-acceleration * g-drop-distance ) 
  ;; Determine how much of the endowment this heterotroph can accept.
  let energy-to-reject ( endowment-offered - max-exergy )
  
  ;; If there is too much energy offered, reject some.  Otherwise, store all 
  ;;   of it.
  ifelse( energy-to-reject > 0 )
  [ 
    set cur-potential ( max-exergy ) 
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-fiss-exergy cur-potential
    set endowment-remaining energy-to-reject
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: energy accepted - " max-exergy )
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: energy-to-reject - " energy-to-reject )
  ]
  ;; Else
  [
    set cur-potential ( endowment-offered ) 
    f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-fiss-exergy cur-potential
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-reproduce: energy accepted - " endowment-offered )
    set endowment-remaining 0
  ]
  ;; End else
  
  report endowment-remaining
  ;; End of fr-heterotroph-accepts-endowment
end 
  
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; D5 – do-die procedure(s)
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

to do-die
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ifelse( ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "all" ) or ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "die" ) )
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 1 LOG-TO-FILE "" LOG-TO-FILE word "Do-die: Debug on; tick = " ticks ]
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ]
  ]
  
  if( ( count autotrophs ) > 0 )
  [
    ask autotrophs
    [
      f-set-autotroph-death-flag
      f-autotroph-dies
    ]
  ]
  
  if( ( count heterotrophs ) > 0 )
  [
    ask heterotrophs
    [
      f-set-heterotroph-death-flag
      f-heterotroph-dies
    ]
  ]
  
  ;; Supressed. f-update-aggregates

  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-die: procedure completed"
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; f-set-autotroph-death-flag

to f-set-autotroph-death-flag
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a autotroph.
  
  set b-is-ready-to-die 0        ;; i.e. false, default.

  ;; If a cause of death has already been noted, it dies.
  if( cause-of-death > ge-cod-none )
  [
    ;; A cause of death has been previously flagged.
    set b-is-ready-to-die 1 
    LOG-TO-FILE ( WORD "  Do-die: A(xrg,cod) - ("
      floor cur-potential "," cause-of-death ")" )
  ]
    
  ;; End f-set-autotroph-death-flag
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; f-autotroph-dies

to f-autotroph-dies
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a autotroph.
  
  if( b-is-ready-to-die = 1 )
  [
    ;; If this autotroph is in the process of being eaten as prey at the 
    ;;   moment that it dies it must be released from the oam.
    if( b-is-in-oam = ge-rh-hoam ) 
    [ 
      let predator ( turtle pred-who )
      ask predator
      [
        f-predator-releases-prey 
      ]
    ]
    
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "  Do-die: A(xrg,die-flag,cod) - (" 
      floor cur-potential "," 
      b-is-ready-to-die "," 
      cause-of-death ")" ) 

    ;; Record the cause of death in the statistics.
    if( cause-of-death > 0 )
    [
      if( cause-of-death = ge-cod-as-prey )
        [ f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-a-die-asprey cur-potential ]
      f-increment-cod-list breed cause-of-death
   ]
    
    die  ;; The autotroph disappears from the system.    
  ]

  ;; End f-autotroph-dies
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; f-set-heterotroph-death-flag

to f-set-heterotroph-death-flag
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.
  
  set b-is-ready-to-die 0        ;; i.e. false, default.

  ;; If a cause of death has already been noted, it dies.
  if( cause-of-death > ge-cod-none )
  [
    ;; A cause of death has been previously flagged.
    set b-is-ready-to-die 1 
    LOG-TO-FILE ( WORD "  Do-die: A(age,xrg,oam,cod) - ("
      age "," floor cur-potential "," b-is-in-oam "," cause-of-death ")" )
  ]

  ;; No cause of death has been set yet.  Check basic vital signs.
  if( cur-potential <= EPM )  ;; Effectively, this is g-h-DET.
  [ 
    set b-is-ready-to-die 1 
    set cause-of-death ge-cod-hunger 
    LOG-TO-FILE ( WORD "  Do-die: A(age,xrg,oam,cod) - ("
      age "," floor cur-potential "," b-is-in-oam "," cause-of-death ")" )
  ]
    
  if( age > g-h-DAT )
  [ 
    set b-is-ready-to-die 1 
    set cause-of-death ge-cod-old-age 
    LOG-TO-FILE ( WORD "  Do-die: A(age,xrg,oam,cod) - ("
      age "," floor cur-potential "," b-is-in-oam "," cause-of-death ")" )
  ]

  ;; If it dies as prey, that over-rides all other causes of death.
  if( ( b-is-in-oam = ge-rh-hoam ) and ( b-is-ready-to-die = 1 ) )
  [
    set cause-of-death ge-cod-as-prey 
    LOG-TO-FILE ( WORD "  Do-die: A(age,xrg,oam,cod) - ("
      age "," floor cur-potential "," b-is-in-oam "," cause-of-death ")" )
  ]
    
  ;; End f-set-heterotroph-death-flag
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; f-heterotroph-dies

to f-heterotroph-dies
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.
  
  if( b-is-ready-to-die = 1 )
  [
    ;; If this heterotroph is in the process of eating prey at the moment that
    ;;   it dies, the prey is set free.
    if( b-is-in-oam = ge-lh-hoam ) 
    [ 
      f-predator-releases-prey 
    ]
    
    ;; If this heterotroph is in the process of being eaten as prey at the 
    ;;   moment that it dies it must be released from the oam.
    if( b-is-in-oam = ge-rh-hoam ) 
    [ 
      let predator ( turtle pred-who )
      ask predator
      [
        f-predator-releases-prey 
      ]
    ]
    
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Do-die: H(xrg,die-flag,cod) - (" 
      floor cur-potential "," 
      b-is-ready-to-die "," 
      cause-of-death ")" ) 

    ;; TODO debug cause of death.
    
    ;; Record the cause of death in the statistics.
    if( cause-of-death > 0 )
    [
      if( cause-of-death = ge-cod-hunger )
        [ f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-die-hunger cur-potential ]
      if( cause-of-death = ge-cod-old-age )
        [ f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-die-oldage cur-potential ]
      if( cause-of-death = ge-cod-as-prey )
        [ f-store-data-in-sink ge-sinktype-h-die-asprey cur-potential ]
      f-increment-cod-list breed cause-of-death
   ]
    
    die  ;; The heterotroph disappears from the system.    
  ]

  ;; End f-heterotroph-dies
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; f-predator-releases-prey

to f-predator-releases-prey
  ;; This routine is to be executed by a heterotroph.
  
  ;; This heterotroph is currently eating prey.  The prey is released.
  
  let prey turtle prey-who
  ask prey
  [
    set color default-colour
    if( breed = heterotrophs )
    [
      set b-is-ready-to-move 1    ;; true
    ]
    set b-is-in-oam ge-not-in-oam
    set cause-of-death ge-cod-as-prey
  ]
  
  set color default-colour
  set b-is-ready-to-move 1    ;; true
  set b-is-in-oam ge-not-in-oam
  
  ;; Return OAM-related variables to defaults.
  ;; These contain data for the OAM consisting of coupled predator/prey.
  set prey-who        -1 ;; an invalid value; who number of prey haom.
  set pred-who        -1 ;; an invalid value; who number of predator haom.
  set Eu-in-oam        1 ;; Eu is Odum's efficiency.

  set max-drop-time    0 ;; Drop time for this OAM.
  set cur-drop-time    0 ;; Time since drop started.
  set rem-drop-time    0 ;; Remaining drop time.
  set drop-time-ratio  0 ;; Fraction of drop time remaining.


  ;; End f-predator-releases-prey
end 
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; D6 - do-post-tick procedure(s)
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

to do-post-tick
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
   
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ifelse( ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "all" ) or ( gs-debug-step-chooser = "post-tick" ) )
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 1  LOG-TO-FILE "" LOG-TO-FILE word "Do-Post-tick: Debug on; tick = " ticks ]
    [ set gb-debug-flow-on 0 ]
  ]
  
  ;; MANUAL CHANGE FOR DEBUG.
  ;; This is a call to a debug routine which could be suppressed if all is okay.
  ;; This is one of a group of such calls, most of which are between steps in 
  ;;   the 'Go' routine.  They are suppressed there, but can be enabled again.
  ;; I have decided to leave this one active, for now.
  ;; It checks all agents, every tick, to ensure that all values are greater than
  ;;   or equal to zero.  
  if( frb-agents-are-all-valid = false ) 
    [ LOG-TO-FILE ( word "Agents failed validity test." ) ]
  
  ;; Update the aggregates for display in the monitors.
  f-update-aggregates

  display

  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-post-tick: procedure completed."
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; SECTION E – DRAWING AND MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE(S)
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|



;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Update the values of global aggregate numbers.

to f-update-aggregates
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.

  ;; Although this is a display-only routine, it may implicitly call the PRNG and
  ;;   so may have an effect on the trajectory of the model.  In a standard 'go'
  ;;   run it is called only once per tick, before graphs are updated.  If you
  ;;   use the one-step debug buttons, it is called once after each step, so
  ;;   debug runs that use those buttons will not replicate a real run.
  
  ;;---------------------------------------------------------------------------|
  ;; The following agent sets, counts and averages are for data collection 
  ;;   and display in monitors and plots.
  
  ;; Agent sets
  ;; Set of all turtles as lh-hoams
  set ga-oams 
    ( heterotrophs with [b-is-in-oam = ge-lh-hoam] ) 
  
  ;; Counts
  set g-no-of-autotrophs ( count autotrophs )     ;; count of all autotrophs
  set g-no-of-heterotrophs ( count heterotrophs ) ;; count of all heterotrophs
  set g-no-of-oams ( count ga-oams )  ;; count of all Open Atwood Machines
  set g-no-of-a-as-rh-hoams ( count autotrophs with [b-is-in-oam = ge-rh-hoam] )  
  set g-no-of-h-as-rh-hoams ( count heterotrophs with [b-is-in-oam = ge-rh-hoam] )  
  
  ;; Averages - autotrophs
  ifelse( g-no-of-autotrophs = 0 )
  [
    set g-a-ave-getf 0
    set g-a-ave-max-potential 0
    set g-a-ave-cur-potential 0
  ]
  ;; Else
  [
    set g-a-ave-getf ( sum [getf] of autotrophs ) / g-no-of-autotrophs
    set g-a-ave-max-potential ( sum [max-potential] of autotrophs ) / g-no-of-autotrophs
    set g-a-ave-cur-potential ( sum [cur-potential] of autotrophs ) / g-no-of-autotrophs
  ]
  ;; End else
  
  ;; Averages - heterotrophs
  ifelse( g-no-of-heterotrophs = 0 )
  [
    set g-h-ave-age 0
    set g-h-ave-getf 0
    set g-h-ave-lb-gene 0
    set g-h-ave-ub-gene 0
    set g-h-ave-RET 0
    set g-h-ave-EPM 0
    set g-h-ave-max-potential 0
    set g-h-ave-cur-potential 0
  ]
  ;; Else
  [
    set g-h-ave-age ( sum [age] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
    set g-h-ave-getf ( sum [getf] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
    set g-h-ave-lb-gene ( sum [lb-genetic-factor] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
    set g-h-ave-ub-gene ( sum [ub-genetic-factor] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
    set g-h-ave-RET ( sum [RET] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
    set g-h-ave-EPM ( sum [EPM] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
    set g-h-ave-max-potential ( sum [max-potential] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
    set g-h-ave-cur-potential ( sum [cur-potential] of heterotrophs ) / g-no-of-heterotrophs
  ]
  ;; End else

  ;; Averages - OAMs
  ifelse( g-no-of-oams = 0 )
  [
    set g-h-ave-Eu 0
    set g-h-ave-max-dt 0
    set g-h-ave-cur-dt 0
    set g-h-ave-rem-dt 0
    set g-h-ave-dt-ratio 0
    set g-h-ave-BITE-total 0
    set g-h-ave-BITE-xrg 0
    set g-h-ave-BITE-kinetic 0 
  ]
  ;; Else
  [
    set g-h-ave-Eu ( sum [Eu-in-oam] of ga-oams ) / g-no-of-oams
    set g-h-ave-max-dt ( sum [max-drop-time] of ga-oams ) / g-no-of-oams
    set g-h-ave-cur-dt ( sum [cur-drop-time] of ga-oams ) / g-no-of-oams
    set g-h-ave-rem-dt ( sum [rem-drop-time] of ga-oams ) / g-no-of-oams
    set g-h-ave-dt-ratio ( sum [drop-time-ratio] of ga-oams ) / g-no-of-oams
    
    set g-h-ave-BITE-xrg  
      ( 
        ( item ge-sinktype-a-food-exergy gl-sinks-per-tick ) +
        ( item ge-sinktype-h-food-exergy gl-sinks-per-tick ) 
      ) / g-no-of-oams
    set g-h-ave-BITE-kinetic  
      ( 
        ( item ge-sinktype-a-kinetic gl-sinks-per-tick ) +
        ( item ge-sinktype-h-kinetic gl-sinks-per-tick ) 
      ) / g-no-of-oams 
    set g-h-ave-BITE-total ( g-h-ave-BITE-xrg + g-h-ave-BITE-kinetic )
  ]
  ;; End else
  
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
  ;; To ensure that the PRNG is called whether or not plots are displayed, the
  ;;   calculations needed for the histogram plots which invoke the PRNG
  ;;   implicitly should be carried out here where they will happen every tick.

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
  ;; Setup for Plot "AAAAAA"
  
  ;; This log entry may come from any step during debug operations.  
  LOG-TO-FILE "  Do-xxx: All aggregates updated."  
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Report the status of a switch.

to-report fr-h-lb-switch-status
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  let answer "Non-phenotypic"
  if( gb-h-lb-gene-active = true )
  [ set answer "phenotypic" ]
  report answer  
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Report the status of a switch.

to-report fr-h-ub-switch-status
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  let answer "Non-phenotypic"
  if( gb-h-ub-gene-active = true )
  [ set answer "phenotypic" ]
  report answer  
end 

;;--------------------------
;; DATA CAPTURE TO CSV FILES
;;--------------------------
  
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Record the data is several selected plots to CSV files

to f-record-selected-plots
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  ;; The template for the export command is:
  ;; export-plot plotname filename

  ;; Get a common timestamp for all plots.
  let timestamp fr-get-time-stamp
  
  ;; Plot 01
  let plotname "Populations"
  let plot-filename 
    ( word timestamp 
           "_Sc" g-scenario-number 
           "_Se" g-use-this-seed 
           "_Pl01_POPS.CSV" )
  export-plot plotname plot-filename
  
  ;; Plot 02
  set plotname "Ave Eu of OAMs"
  set plot-filename 
    ( word timestamp 
           "_Sc" g-scenario-number 
           "_Se" g-use-this-seed 
           "_Pl02_OAMS.CSV" )
  export-plot plotname plot-filename
  
  ;; Plot 03
  set plotname "Prey Numbers"
  set plot-filename 
    ( word timestamp 
           "_Sc" g-scenario-number 
           "_Se" g-use-this-seed 
           "_Pl03_PREY.CSV" )
  export-plot plotname plot-filename
  
  ;; Plot 04
  set plotname "Counts By T-Level"
  set plot-filename 
    ( word timestamp 
           "_Sc" g-scenario-number 
           "_Se" g-use-this-seed 
           "_Pl04_TCNTS.CSV" )
  export-plot plotname plot-filename
  
  ;; Plot 05
  set plotname "Eu By T-Level"
  set plot-filename 
    ( word timestamp 
           "_Sc" g-scenario-number 
           "_Se" g-use-this-seed 
           "_Pl05_EUBYTL.CSV" )
  export-plot plotname plot-filename
  
  ;; Plot 06
  set plotname "Max Trophic Level"
  set plot-filename 
    ( word timestamp 
           "_Sc" g-scenario-number 
           "_Se" g-use-this-seed 
           "_Pl06_MAXTL.CSV" )
  export-plot plotname plot-filename
  
  ;; End f-record-selected-plots
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Construct a time stamp for a file name for data in CSV format.

to-report fr-get-time-stamp
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  ;;
  ;; Date-string format "01:19:36.685 PM 19-Sep-2002"
  let date-string date-and-time
  let time-stamp ""
  ;; Append the year as yy.
  set time-stamp word time-stamp ( substring date-string 25 27 )
  ;; Append the month as Mmm.
  set time-stamp word time-stamp fr-convert-mmm-mm ( substring date-string 19 22 )
  ;; Append the day as dd.
  set time-stamp word time-stamp ( substring date-string 16 18 )
  ;; Append a dash.
  set time-stamp word time-stamp "_"

  ;; Append the hour as hh.
  set time-stamp word time-stamp fr-convert1224 ( substring date-string 0 2 ) ( substring date-string 13 15 )
  ;; Append the minute as mm.
  set time-stamp word time-stamp ( substring date-string 3 5 )
  ;; Append the second as ss.
  set time-stamp word time-stamp ( substring date-string 6 8 )

  report time-stamp
  ;; End fr-get-time-stamp
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; DEBUG AND DEBUG LOG FILE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS
;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Open a log file for debug output.

to f-open-log-file
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  ;; Ensure previous log file is closed.
  if ( is-string? gs-log-file-name )
  [
    if ( file-exists? gs-log-file-name )
    [
      file-close-all
    ]
  ]
  
  ;; Date-string format "01:19:36.685 PM 19-Sep-2002"
  let date-string date-and-time
  set gs-log-file-name "MppLab_Log_"
  ;; Append the year as yy.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name ( substring date-string 25 27 )
  ;; Append the month as Mmm.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name fr-convert-mmm-mm ( substring date-string 19 22 )
  ;; Append the day as dd.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name ( substring date-string 16 18 )
  ;; Append a dash.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name "_"

  ;; Append the hour as hh.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name fr-convert1224 ( substring date-string 0 2 ) ( substring date-string 13 15 )
  ;; Append the minute as mm.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name ( substring date-string 3 5 )
  ;; Append the second as ss.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name ( substring date-string 6 8 )
  ;; Append the .txt extension.
  set gs-log-file-name word gs-log-file-name ".txt"

  file-open gs-log-file-name
  file-show "Log File for a MppLab (NetLogo) Model."
  file-show word "File Name: " gs-log-file-name
  file-show word "File opened at:" date-and-time
  file-show ""
  
  ;; Send a message directly to the command centre.
  ifelse ( file-exists? gs-log-file-name )
  [
    show word gs-log-file-name " opened."
  ]
  [
    show word gs-log-file-name " not opened."
  ]
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Convert month in text form to digital form.

to-report fr-convert-mmm-mm [ mmm ]
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  ;; It converts a string in the form mmm ( alpha text ) to the form mm ( digit-text ).
  
  let mm "00"
  if( mmm = "Jan" ) [ set mm "01" ]
  if( mmm = "Feb" ) [ set mm "02" ]
  if( mmm = "Mar" ) [ set mm "03" ]
  if( mmm = "Apr" ) [ set mm "04" ]
  if( mmm = "May" ) [ set mm "05" ]
  if( mmm = "Jun" ) [ set mm "06" ]
  if( mmm = "Jul" ) [ set mm "07" ]
  if( mmm = "Aug" ) [ set mm "08" ]
  if( mmm = "SeP" ) [ set mm "09" ]
  if( mmm = "Oct" ) [ set mm "10" ]
  if( mmm = "Nov" ) [ set mm "11" ]
  if( mmm = "Dec" ) [ set mm "12" ]
  report mm
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Convert hour in 12 format to 24 hour format.

to-report fr-convert1224 [ hh ampm ]
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  ;; It converts a string in 12 hour format to 24 hour format.
  
  let hour read-from-string hh
  if( ampm = "PM" ) [ set hour ( hour + 12 ) ]
  
  let dd ( word "00" hour )
  let d2 last dd
  set dd but-last dd
  let d1 last dd
  set dd ( word d1 d2 )
  report dd
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Close a log file for debug output.

to f-close-log-file
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  let b-filename-exists 0
  if ( is-string? gs-log-file-name ) 
  [
    if ( file-exists? gs-log-file-name )
    [
      set b-filename-exists 1
    ]
  ] 

  ifelse( b-filename-exists = 1 )
  [
    ;; Ensure the file is selected.
    file-open gs-log-file-name
      
    ;; Stanp it.
    LOG-TO-FILE word "File closed at: " date-and-time
      
    ;; Flush the buffers.
    file-flush 
      
    ;; Close it.
    file-close-all
      
    ;; Note sent to command centre.
    show word gs-log-file-name " closed."
    
    ;; Revert to dummy name.
    set gs-log-file-name "dummyname"
  ]
  [
    if( gs-log-file-name = "dummyname" )
      [ show "No log file is open.  Cannot close it." ]
  ]
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Select an already opened log file.

to f-select-log-file
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer.
  
  ifelse ( file-exists? gs-log-file-name )
  [
    ;; Ensure the file is selected.
    file-open gs-log-file-name
    
    ;; Ensure it is open for writing.
    LOG-TO-FILE ""
    LOG-TO-FILE "SELECTED"    
  ]
  [
    show word gs-log-file-name " is not open.  Cannot select it."
  ]
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Change the debug mode from on to off, or vice versa.

to f-toggle-debug
  ;; This routine is to be executed by the observer, and is activated by a 
  ;;   button.
  
  ifelse( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ;; Debug is On, turn it Off.
    ;; Close the file before turning debug logging off.
    f-close-log-file
    set gs-debug-status "0 (Off)"  ;; This appears in the monitor.
    set gb-debug-on 0              ;; But this controls the debug feature.
  ]
  [
    ;; Debug is Off, turn it On.
    set gs-debug-status "1 (On)"   ;; This appears in the monitor.
    set gb-debug-on 1              ;; But this controls the debug feature.
    ;; The switches, if needed, are reset manually by the user.
    ;; Open the log file after turning debug logging on.
    f-open-log-file
  ]
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; 'Show' a string in a debug log.

to LOG-TO-FILE [ log-this-string ]
  ;; This routine may be executed by observer, autotroph, or heterotroph.
  ;; It should be invoked as a debug routine only, and would not be used for 
  ;;    normal output.  It sends output to the debug log file, or, optionally,
  ;;    also to the command centre.
  
  
  ;; gb-debug-on is a global Boolean and has value 1 (true) or 0 (false).
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ;; gb-debug-flow-on is declared as a global Boolean variable, and its value 
    ;;   is 0 ( false ) or 1 ( true ) and is set on or off at the beginning of each 
    ;;   function ( each do-step ).  It is controlled by the chooser that selects 'all' 
    ;;   or a specific do-function.
    ;; 
    ;; When it is 'on' you can assume the debug log file exists and is open for
    ;;   write.
    
    if( gb-debug-flow-on = 1 )
    [
      file-show log-this-string
      show log-this-string
    ] 
  ]
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; This replicates the effect of an 'ASSERTION' in C++

to ASSERT [ error-test error-string error-who ]
;; This routine can be run by observer, autotroph or heterotroph (I think).

if( error-test = false )
[
  show ( word error-test " " error-string " " error-who )
  ;; Cause a run-time error and display a message.
  error ( word "Agent: " error-who " - " error-string )
]
end 


;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Check whether the agents are all valid.

to-report frb-agents-are-all-valid 
;; This routine can be run by the observer.

  let b-agents-are-all-valid true
  
  if( gb-debug-on = 1 )
  [
    ;; Do the check only if debug is on.
    
    ;; Check the autotrophs.
    ask autotrophs
    [
      if( frb-autotroph-is-valid = false ) [ set b-agents-are-all-valid false ]
    ]
    
    ;; Check the heterotrophs.
    ask heterotrophs
    [
      if( frb-heterotroph-is-valid = false ) [ set b-agents-are-all-valid false ]
    ]
  ]
  
  report b-agents-are-all-valid
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Check whether a autotroph is valid.

to-report frb-autotroph-is-valid 
;; This routine can be run by a autotroph.

  let b-autotroph-is-valid true
  
  report b-autotroph-is-valid
end 

;;-----------------------------------------------------------------------------|
;; Check whether a heterotroph is valid.

to-report frb-heterotroph-is-valid 
;; This routine can be run by a heterotroph.

  let b-heterotroph-is-valid true

  if( getf < 0 ) 
  [ 
    set b-heterotroph-is-valid false 
    LOG-TO-FILE ( word "getf = " getf "; at tick = " ticks )
  ]
  

  report b-heterotroph-is-valid
end 

There are 2 versions of this model.

Uploaded by When Description Download
Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago Loaded the wrong file. This fixes it. Download this version
Garvin Boyle almost 2 years ago Initial upload Download this version

Attached files

File Type Description Last updated
03 MppLab V1.09.png preview Preview for '03 MppLab V1.09' almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
141129 NTF - NetLogo Stds for OrrerySW R2.pdf pdf Prepared standards for Orrery Software for NetLogo projects. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
150101 NTF Atwood's Machine R4.pdf pdf An analysis of the functioning of Atwood's Machine. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
150105 NTF AM Shape Study R1.pdf pdf A study of the shape of the power vs efficiency curve of Atwood's Machine. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
150113 NTF Atwoods Machine Revisited R4.pdf pdf More thoughts on the operations of Atwood's Machine as a model for energy transfers. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
150418 NTF Three Shapes of AM Revisited R2.pdf pdf A more detailed study of the power vs efficiency curves associated with Atwood's Machine. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
160509 NTF Video of MppLab - Trophic Levels - On Youtube.pdf pdf A document with a link to a youtube video produced using MppLab. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
170324 NTF MppLab Change Diary R4.pdf pdf The most recent change diary. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download
170326 NTF High-Level Design - MppLab R2.pdf pdf A high-level technical description of the model. almost 2 years ago, by Garvin Boyle Download

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