Sand

1 collaborator

Uri Wilensky (Author)

Tags

chemistry and physics

Tagged by Reuven M. Lerner almost 6 years ago

Model group CCL | Visible to everyone | Changeable by group members (CCL)
Model was written in NetLogo 5.0.4 • Viewed 184 times • Downloaded 16 times • Run 0 times

WHAT IS IT?

This is a model of how sand particles interact with each other. In this environment, all sand particles try to move down if any of the following four rules apply. The four rules are:

1. If there is nothing directly beneath you, move down.
2. If there is something beneath you and to the lower right, move down and to the left.
3. if there is something beneath you and to your lower left, move down and to the right.
4. If there is only something directly beneath you, move down and either left or right at random.

HOW TO USE IT

GO: Starts and stops the simulation.

SETUP: Sets up the model.

RELEASE-CHANCE: Determines the percent chance that a particle of sand will fall from a spout each turn (default value of 100%).

SPACING: Determines how long a spout waits before releasing the next particle of sand.

DUMP SAND: Dumps sand on all of the model according to the density leve. Use this only after you have pressed SETUP.

DENSITY: Sets the density of sand particles dumped in DUMP SAND (default value of 25%). For example setting the density to 40 will, at random fill 40 percent of the patches with sand.

THINGS TO NOTICE

Observe how sand will roll down a "mountain" of sand particles. Consider how this phenomenon is supported by the rules. Notice the patterns that form when two "mountains" of sand grow into each other.

THINGS TO TRY

Observe how the spouts will form uniform pyramids of sand. Try DUMP SAND at a low density once you have a relatively large pyramid shape. How does this effect the shape of the pyramid? Does the pyramid ever return to its original shape?

Try decreasing RELEASE-CHANCE. What effect does this have on the growth rate of sand "mountains"?

Set the SPACING to 1. (You'll have to edit the slider, since the normal minimum is 2.) What happens? Is this just a limitation of the model rules, or does it have some plausible physical interpretation?

EXTENDING THE MODEL

In the Code tab, notice the variable `spout-space`. Try changing the number of spouts at the top of the view by changing `spout-space`.

Does this model accurately reflect how sand behaves? If not what rules could you devise to more accurately model sand's behavior? How could they be incorporated into the model?

What effect does weight have on sand particles? Should particles with lots of particles above them behave differently? If so, how would this change the rules?

Try simulating erosion with this model. How could you simulate wind? What effect would this have on the shape of the piles? How could you simulate rain? What effect would this have on the shape of the piles?

NETLOGO FEATURES

Notice how the model stores an agentset in a variable, `spout-patches`. It is initialized with the agentset of the patches where the spouts are located. Subsequently this variable can be used in an `ask` command just like the default agentsets of `turtles` and `patches`. Since the agentset is built once, ahead of time, the models runs faster than if the agentset were rebuilt at every step.

HOW TO CITE

If you mention this model in a publication, we ask that you include these citations for the model itself and for the NetLogo software:

• Wilensky, U. (1996). NetLogo Sand model. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/models/Sand. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.
• Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/. Center for Connected Learning and Computer-Based Modeling, Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.

This model was created as part of the project: CONNECTED MATHEMATICS: MAKING SENSE OF COMPLEX PHENOMENA THROUGH BUILDING OBJECT-BASED PARALLEL MODELS (OBPML). The project gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (Applications of Advanced Technologies Program) -- grant numbers RED #9552950 and REC #9632612.

This model was converted to NetLogo as part of the projects: PARTICIPATORY SIMULATIONS: NETWORK-BASED DESIGN FOR SYSTEMS LEARNING IN CLASSROOMS and/or INTEGRATED SIMULATION AND MODELING ENVIRONMENT. The project gratefully acknowledges the support of the National Science Foundation (REPP & ROLE programs) -- grant numbers REC #9814682 and REC-0126227. Converted from StarLogoT to NetLogo, 2001.

Click to Run Model

```globals [
spout-patches    ;; set in setup so we don't have to keep recomputing it
spout-ycor       ;; location of the spouts
surface-ycor     ;; initial location of the surface of the sand at the bottom
]

patches-own [
next-color       ;; patches first all decide what color to change to, then all change
]

to setup
clear-all
set surface-ycor -0.8 * max-pycor
ask patches with [pycor < surface-ycor]
[ set pcolor gray ]
set spout-ycor round (max-pycor * 0.9)
let spout-space round (max-pxcor * 0.6)
;; now set up the blue spouts at spout-space intervals
set spout-patches patches with [(pxcor mod spout-space = 0) and
(pycor = spout-ycor)]
[ set pcolor blue ]
reset-ticks
end

to dump-sand
ask patches with [(pycor < spout-ycor) and
(pycor > surface-ycor)]
[ if random-float 100 < density
[ set pcolor brown ] ]
end

to go
spout
move-all-sand
tick
end

;; spouts sand particles depending on spacing (how often sand is released)
;; and the release-chance percent when the spacing interval is reached

to spout
if ticks mod spacing = 0
[ ask spout-patches with [random-float 100 <= release-chance]
[ ask patch-at 0 -1 [ set pcolor brown ] ] ]
end

;; implements the four rules given in the info tab
;; to all the brown sand particles

to move-all-sand
[ set next-color pcolor ]
ask patches with [pcolor = brown]
[ ifelse ([pcolor] of patch-at 0 -1 = black)
[ move 0 ]
[ ifelse ([pcolor] of patch-at -1 -1 = brown) and
([pcolor] of patch-at  1 -1 = black)
[ move 1 ]
[ ifelse ([pcolor] of patch-at -1 -1 = black) and
([pcolor] of patch-at  1 -1 = brown)
[ move -1 ]
[ if ([pcolor] of patch-at 1 -1 = black) and
([pcolor] of patch-at -1 -1 = black)
[ move one-of [1 -1] ] ] ] ] ]
;; we do this in a separate "ask" so that all the patches decide
;; on their new colors before any of them actually change color
[ set pcolor next-color ]
end

to move [x-offset];; patch procedure
set next-color black
ask patch-at x-offset -1 [ set next-color brown ]
end

```

There are 10 versions of this model.

Uri Wilensky over 6 years ago Updated version tag Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 6 years ago Updated to version from NetLogo 5.0.3 distribution Download this version
Uri Wilensky over 7 years ago Updated to NetLogo 5.0 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Updated from NetLogo 4.1 Download this version
Uri Wilensky almost 9 years ago Model from NetLogo distribution Download this version